Urban transport has been invested centered on efficiency and operated for development and support of economic activity. Efficiency-driven management has limitations in promoting transport services for public welfare and social integration. This study typified economic and social vulnerable of transportation sector by income, health and residential area(transport service blind area) and analyzed whether the previous public transport policies had unequal elements in classes.
First, the analysis of low-income groups and public transport accessibility distribution in Seoul and metropolitan new towns showed that the low-income vulnerable lived in the outskirts of the city and have low accessibility to public transportation compared to those living in the central areas. This is probably due to the fact that public transport infrastructure investments and routes have been concentrated in the central area of the city, rather than the urban suburbs, due to efficiency-oriented provision and operation of public transportation infrastructure. Also, there is a variation in the level of public transportation services according to the residential location in the same city. and the service gap between the center and suburb areas may become large, so that requires consideration in terms of public transportation planning and operation policies. In this study, we propose the establishment of investment finance and business system to ensure the equality of public transportation service and the monitoring and evaluation system for the variation of public transportation service level by residential area. and we suggest that the deliberate process in reduction or abolition of services be needed
Second, the free-ride system of metro for the elderly is has issues about sustainability due to the increase in the number of beneficiaries due to the aging of the elderly. In this study, the analysis of the mode share of the elderly and free-ride record of the metro is conducted based on the household survey data and public transport data in Daejeon metropolitan city. The analysis shows that the elderly whom lives in the area where metro does not passes are difficult to use benefit of free-ride system. Therefore, if the accessibility of metro is not secured throughout the city, certain regions may result in non-institutional benefits. In order to compensate for the inequalities caused by the limitation of the transport system, it is necessary to consider expanding the free-ride system to other modes such as buses.
Third, the Moon Jae-in government considers expanding Taxi DRT(Demand responsive transport) services which is called '100-won-Taxi' to improve comforts and welfare of rural residents. In rural areas, the size of households and road conditions are different in each village, so that a wide range of interests with existing passenger car operators. and it is necessary to investigate if villages with small size and difficulty in introduction of DRT services. In this study, the field survey was conducted four Counties in Jeollabuk-do(Provincial area) to figure out DRT introduction and operation status of transport-vulnerable areas. According to the results of survey, rural areas have different distribution of households and demands. Therefore, when expanding the DRT services to the nationwide, it is necessary to consider various conditions of villages for satisfaction of the residents. finally, the establishment of a flexible framework of institution, post-evaluation system, and the application of private technology to enhance operational efficiency and service improvement.