For more than a decade World Bank and Korea Transport Institute have been cooperated in striving for developing and disseminating good policies on transport and logistics. Through diverse cooperative activities such as annual joint workshops, experts exchange, and capacity building programmes for developing countries, the two institutes have been mutually benefitted. Based on such successful a decade-long cooperation, the two institutes agreed to carry out joint researches in mutually interested topics and share the results with international societies.
Through intense internal discussion and close consultation between the two organizations, we selected three challenging issues such as expansion of electric vehicle supply, developing logistics clusters, and enhancing traffic safety through speed management. The three topics are in line with the sustainable development goals of the United Nation, and of highly interested from developing countries. Three research teams for each topics organized in WB and KOTI carried out studies in close cooperation for last one year. This report demonstrates the research results from the three research teams. Although three researches have different scheme and depth of analysis due to limit of data availability, they all tried to utilize experience of Korea.
This joint research is expected to be used as meaningful policy references for developing countries around the world. With this joint research, I wish the cooperation between the two institutes would be strengthened further and many joint researches on diverse topics would be followed.
Introduction and Executive Summary
Part 1 Korea's Experience of Electric Vehicle Charging 15Infrastructures
1.2.The history and defining features of Korea’s eMobility program
1.4.Market structure and its evolution
1.5.The role and impact of new technologies
1.6.Best Practice: Jeju Island
1.7.Key lessons for sharing
Part 2 Competing with Logistics Clusters
2.2.Definitional and Conceptual Analysis
2.3.Logistics Clusters in the European Union
2.4.Logistics Clusters in the United States
2.5.Logistics Clusters in Korea
2.6.Lessons learned from the European and North American experience
2.7.Lessons learned from the Korean Experience
2.8.Guiding Questions for Policy and Decision Makers
Part 3 Speed Limit Management for Enhancing Traffic Safety on Urban Roads
3.2.Speeding and Its Road Safety Risks
3.4.Cases in Korea and Europe
3.5.Case Studies in Daegu
3.7.Conclusion and Policy Recommendations
The smart cities appeared as a solution to the adverse effects of rapid urbanization in the mid-90s such as environmental issues, energy issues, transportation issues and safety issues. Therefore, smart cities are spreading rapidly and competitively throughout the world in order to solve various urban issues efficiently while responding to the 4th Industrial Revolution proactively and creating new growth engines. Smart mobility which is one of key service fields for smart city is also spreading promptly in linkage with the previous advanced transport system such as intelligent transport systems (ITS).
However, while various Smart City construction projects are being undertaken by national and regional governments throughout the world, uniform Smart City designs and strategies are replicated to different cities and regions which often disregards region-specific characteristics. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop the readiness assessment methodology applicable to smart mobility strategies/solutions, and for enabling developing countries to strategically plan and implement smart mobility strategies/solutions customized to their local context.
Smart mobility is a relatively new concept and there is no single universally agreed definition around the concept. Based on the existing studies on smart mobility concept and case studies, we developed and proposed a smart mobility concept in form of ‘MATRIX’ according to key goals and level of smart mobility services. As a result, such concept was established by presenting the services for smart mobility in accordance with the four key goals: 1) Improve transportation welfare, 2) Reduce traffic Congestion, 3) Enhance transportation safety, 4) Promote air quality and environment, and three implementation levels: 1) Required service (Level 1), 2) Expanded service (Level 2), 3) Future service (Level 3) respectively. It is expected that the classification of smart mobility services in form of matrix will be utilized by developing countries when they select a service for implementing the smart mobility that fits each country or city.
Smart mobility implementation readiness will involve a systematic analysis of country/city’s status in terms of transport/ICT infrastructure resource/data standards and demand for smart mobility solutions, prior to determining the smart mobility implementation strategy in a specific country or city. Hence, three diagnosis items were set to diagnose the level of smart mobility service provided in evaluation target site. In other words, the current smart mobility conditions of evaluation target site were diagnosed through the level of physical infrastructure built on the target site, the level of digital infrastructure which collect, process, and provide data, and the level of operational infrastructure which can more effectively operate and support these infrastructures.
We derived the evaluation indexes required for service implementation in the three diagnosis items and the criteria for evaluating the indexes. Finally the evaluation methods and evaluation scores of the detailed evaluation criteria were suggested as differentiated evaluation scores depending on whether operation is working (operating or non-operating) and the level of operation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the readiness assessment methodology for smart mobility, Hanoi, Vietnam was selected as a pilot city and the case study was conducted.
Executive Summary iii
Chapter 1. Introduction and Overview 1
1. Background and Purpose of Study 4
2. Scope of Work 5
Chapter 2. Concept Design of Smart Mobility and Relevant Services 7
1. Definition of Smart Mobility 9
2. Drawing of Smart Mobility Services 15
3. Classification of Smart Mobility Services by Key Goals and Service Levels 23
Chapter 3. Level Diagnosis of Smart Mobility 25
1. Definitional and Conceptual Analysis 27
2. Evaluation Methodology on Smart Mobility Service Level Diagnosis 30
3. Derivation of Smart Mobility Service Evaluation Methodology 54
Chapter 4. A Case Study in Hanoi 59
1. Selection of cities for case study and the analysis of project conditions 61
2. Diagnosis and evaluation of service infrastructure level 74
3. Selection of services and drawing of projects (plans) 77
chapter 5. Implication and Lessons 81
Implication and Lessons 83
With advancements in the transportation technology sector, the number ofelectric cars is rapidly growing worldwide. Over three million electric cars areregistered and operating as of 2017, a more than ten-fold increase since 2013(IEA2018). Acknowledging such changes, international organizations such as theWorld Bank (WB) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) are conducting policystudies to launch Official Development Assistance (ODA) projects, with a strongemphasis on e-mobility.
ADB, for instance, executed its phase 1 e-mobility policystudy in 2018, and is now in the process of executing phase 2. Phase 1 looks atcountries where the effect of implementation is expected to be higher, based on ananalysis of the initial impacts of e-mobility policy implementation in ADB memberstates.
Based on the subsequent findings, Phase 2 selects twenty pilot cities, andreviews the effect of and implementation strategies for e-mobility policies at thelevel of individual cities. Under these circumstances, KOTI and ADB are conducting a collaborative studyto diversify assistance projects for the Asian region and ensure the efficientimplementation of e-mobility projects.
ADB will collect information about the citiesin select Asian countries and establish e-mobility strategies, while KOTI willdevelop a readiness index to tease out the feasibility of e-mobility policies andexplore the impact, variables, and implications of the policies by applying emobility toolkit analysis models. The findings are expected to support the adoptionof e-mobility policies in Asia’s developing countries, discover new e-mobilityassistance projects that reflect current trends in transportation technology, andsubsequently contribute to the realization of sustainable transportation systems inAsia’s developing countries.
1.1. Background and Objective
1.2. Scope and Method
2. Korea’s E-Mobility Status and Policies
2.1. Korea’s E-Mobility Policy, System and Related Laws
2.2. Impact Factors to Korea’s EV Distribution and Implications.
3. Status and Challenges of E-Mobility in Asian DevelopingCountries
3.1. E-Mobility Status in Asian Developing Countries
3.2. Asia’s E-Mobility Case Study
3.3. Target Cities for E-Mobility Policy
4. Assessment of E-Mobility Readiness of Target Cities
4.1. Definitions of E-Mobility and E-Mobility Readiness
4.2. Introduction of E-Mobility Readiness Index
4.3. Indicator Estimation Method
4.4. Rating the E-mobility Readiness Index for 13 cities
5. E-Mobility Impact Analysis Toolkit
5.1. Concept and Structure
5.2. E-Mobility Implementation Effect on Target City
5.3. Scenario Analysis of 13 Target Cities’ Policies
6. Conclusion and Policy Suggestions
6.2. Policy Suggestions
The economy of Asia has been growing rapidly, resulting in considerable influence on the global economy and international trade. Countries in Asia have been implementing policies that aim for regional economic integration through large-scale investments in transport infrastructure to better connect the transport network and stimulate transport of international freight. Recently, there have been high expectations for connecting the land transport network on the Korean Peninsula, which remains as a major impediment to East Asian land transport.
These high expectations include the potential for these new connections to catalyze post-COVID-19 recovery, develop international trade in Eurasia, and promote peace and economic development in East Asia. It is necessary to quantitatively measure the impacts of improved transport network connections, which is essential in supporting the policy decision-making process regarding transport infrastructure investments.
The Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) conducted joint research with the International Transport Forum (ITF) and Eastern Asia Society of Transport Studies (EASTS) to form a common understanding of transport connectivity in Northeast Asia, especially on the Korean Peninsula. ITF analyzed the expected impact of improved transport connectivity on the regional economy based on a freight demand model. EASTS analyzed the connectivity of different modes and provided case studies of cities in Northeast Asia. The results of the research are combined in this report. It is hoped that this report can be used to set the future direction for investment in international transport network connections and policies for enhancing connectivity in Northeast Asia.
Executive Summary iii
Part 1 Introduction and Overview 1
1.1. Introduction 5
1.2. Analysis of Current State and Future Plan for Transport 9Infrastructure in Northeast Asia 9
1.3. Eurasia Transport Network Connectivity: Plans and Regional Network Analysis 45
Part 2 Impact Analysis of Improving Transport Connectivity 69in the Northeast Asia Region 69
2.1. Introduction 73
2.2. Review: Korean Peninsula Trade and Transport Connectivity 76
2.3. Review: Existing Overland Trade Routes in Asia and Russia 78
2.4. Scenario Building and Modelling 80
2.5. Scenario Analysis Results: Border Normalization 87
2.6. Conclusion 100
Part 3 Transport Connectivity-Theory and Implementation 103
3.1. Introduction 107
3.2. Analysis of Socioeconomic Impact of Connecting Transport Network in Northeast Asia 110
3.3. Analysis of Public Transport Connectivity 128
3.4. Analysis of Rail Transport Network Connectivity 142
As the Korea Government has established the national political agenda ‘the enhancement of publicness of national highway network, the much expensive tolls in private highway, which is a toll road managed by private sectors, is identified as one of the main flaws in publicness. The average toll of major 7 private highways is 1.60 times higher than those of national roads in 2018. It is clear that the roadmap for toll management is needed to achieve real progress. Thus, this report was initiated to establish national strategies in order to enhance the publicness of a private highway by reducing tolls.
While many experts have emphasized the publicness of roads, the researches on specific factors of road publicness have not been carried out. This report defined the definition and specific requisite of publicness of private roads. Then national policies and strategies were reviewed based on the definition of publicness of private roads. Throughout this process, the paper reveals the linkage between publicness of roads and tolls. Even the publicness should be considered in various ways, higher tolls are the main obstacle of enhancing road publicness especially in Korea road networks because there is no significant improvement in service quality in private roads. In order to fair services in both private and national roads, the policymakers should manage the level of tolls on private roads base on the service quality of roads.
The main issue in management policies for private highways is the private roads on the operation. Dislike to national highways, the private highways have a variety of aspects such as tolls, traffic, and operating expenses. This attributes to each characteristic of the private companies that run those roads. The guarantee of enforcement agreement including the dividend rate sometimes overrides the publicness of roads. Eventually, the specific strategies considering details of each private road section must be lunched to manage tolls in private roads in order to enhance the publicness of private highways.
This report developed specific strategies for reducing and controlling tolls in each private road sector. Strategies are developed based on the case study. The report classified toll-cut methods based on the case studies and identifies the necessary conditions and requirements for applying the methods. New toll-cut methods also were developed by expert advice. As a result, the reports suggested 6 types of methods for lowering tolls.
Specific strategies for the road section were deduced by financial analysis based on cash flow following 5 steps. First, the report prioritized the private road sectors based on the level of tolls. In the second step, multiple possible methods were adopted before the financial feasibility. Each private road section has multiple alternatives in this step. In the third step, financial feasibility decides the realistic possibility of alternatives. An alternative that shows the highest feasibility was adopted for roadmap as ideal strategies. Then, a specific process was arranged to push forward a plan.
As a result, the roadmap includes not only strategies but also time tables to implement strategies. The time table suggested a sequential process. This is because resources, such as manpower and budget, were limited. The roadmap shows that the road section has high toll rates should be pushed ahead with priority. In addition, this report also suggests the policies for complementing roadmap such as the utilization of specialized Institutions or amendment to related legislation. The government is able to establish a comprehensive toll management system in Korea by referring to the various alternatives and strategies.
Chong Suk CHO et al.
In recent years, Korea is facing huge socioeconomic changes that have not been experienced in the past, such as the decrease in the number of working age population due to the aging society, concentration of population in large cities and decrease in population density in local cities due to urban polarization, changes in the values of life, climate change and lack of resources, and the development of advanced science and technology. Since the transportation SOCs have a great impact on people's lives and national competitiveness, it is crucial to identify new trends in this era of change and to establish future transportation SOC strategies to proactively respond to changes in future transportation demand.
This study aims to forecast future passenger travel demand changes and future transportation issues expected from these huge changes such as rapid population changes, urban polarization, changes in life values, climate change and resource shortages, and the development of advanced science and technology which we have never experienced before, In addition, by presenting transportation strategies to address future issues, we aim to improve the citizen’s quality of life in the future and strengthen national competitiveness.
To this end, we focus on studying changes in passenger travel demands and future issues in accordance with changes in population and socioeconomic conditions until today, and derive the possibility of demand changes and the importance of future issues through expert surveys. In addition, this paper aims to establish future transportation SOC strategies by presenting transportation policies in response to each derived future issue.
The transportation SOC facilities covered in this study are limited to passenger transportation facilities, and the scope of transportation mode is limited to land transportation such as roads, railroads, and buses. The spatial scope covers the whole country, excluding ports and airport facilities that primarily handle international travel. For the time range, past 20 years of data is used for trend analysis, and the target year is set as 2045 for future traffic demand forecast.
This study suggests the transportation SOC strategy which is a response to changes in future passenger travel demands and includes four steps. First, we analyze passenger travel trends by major mega trends. Second, the meta-analysis is conducted to predict future changes in passenger travel demand and identify future major issues. Third, the importance of future transportation issues is calculated through the expert survey. Fourth, we propose transportation policies and strategies for major future issues by considering national and foreign policies.
The main results of this study are summarized as follows. First, five trends affecting future transportation demand are selected through the review of existing literature. The selected five trends are demographic change, change in values and quality of life, urban polarization, science and technology development, climate change and resource shortage. These five major trends are again divided into 18 detailed trends, and the expected changes in traffic demand for each of these detailed trends are predicted through relevant literature reviews and decisions made by the research team . In addition, 29 prospective future transportation issues are selected for each detailed trend. Finally, through the expert survey, we select the importance of each future transportation issues and suggest the detailed countermeasures of transportation policies and priorities based on these importance. It is expected that the transportation policy for each future transportation issues presented in this study will be used as a basis for establishing future transportation strategies for the central and local governments.
Hee Cheol SHIN · Jong-Deok LEE · Seongyong PARK
1. The necessity and purpose of research
Changes in traffic trends are taking place due to the arrival of future societies, including entry into super-aged societies, the increase in the employment rate of women and the elderly, and the decrease in the population of provincial cities due to the concentration of population in large cities. To meet the people's expectations regarding this social trend change and national transport, the tasks undertaken by the Korea Transport Institute need to be implemented more systematically, and research tasks to reflect and address the needs of the people's long-term road map tailored to the people's eyes and the needs of the people are needed. It also needs to respond to rapidly changing traffic conditions, find and select research tasks in preparation for mid- to long-term prospects for future traffic demand, and establish strategies for promoting research tasks that can enhance national competitiveness in the 21st century.
The purpose of this study is to establish the planning system necessary for the development of transport policy issues that are consistent with changes in internal and external conditions, and for the development of transport policy issues that are felt by the people through the people's needs and future society's prospects for change.
2. Main research contents
This study derived key research issues and research performance strategies through internal and external traffic policy research environment analysis, future change and people's needs prospect and influence analysis, and presented improvement measures through analysis of the researchers' task performance system to resolve key research issues.
The analysis of the environment for internal and external traffic policy research was initiated by the analysis of the government's national affairs and policy issues, and the analysis of the performance of the previous research carried out identified the internal and external policy research environment, and the implications of the traffic policy study were derived by predicting future social changes.
The analysis of future changes and the outlook and impact of the people's needs were explored through market research and needs surveys for the general public by reviewing future social trends on the status of policy research and predicting the impact of these changes on the transport sector. In addition, preference and feasibility studies were conducted for experts and general users by predicting future transport services, and key research issues and research performance strategies were derived. Priorities by project area were derived for working-level officials of relevant ministries, focusing on key issues derived.
3. Conclusion and Policy Proposal
In this study, three key research issues were derived while developing strategies to cope with various changes in social and economic conditions.
'Key Research Issue I' is 'Future Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution,' which consists of mobility innovation, paradigm shift response, and innovation-based policy trust, while 'Core Research Issue II' is 'Transportation Plan to Improve the Quality of Life' composed of balanced support for national territory development, support for people's livelihood and fair economy, and enhancement of public safety. The "core research III" is a "study on state affairs for inclusive innovation growth" consisting of responses to the new economic guidance on the Korean Peninsula, including strengthening the public nature of the Transportation SOC, creating a job economy, reconciliation and cooperation between the two Koreas and the New South.
And, as a national think tank, the government proposed a survey plan to proactively explore future trends, policy demands, and research issues to respond to people's needs, focusing on three key research issues in the transportation sector to cope with future changes.
As a national think tank, the main body is an institution with an important role to contribute to the nation's transport development and government transport policies, and it is important to develop strategies for responding to changes in the transportation sector in response to future social changes. However, since modern society is changing very rapidly and people's needs and social and economic values are also changing rapidly, the three key research issues presented in this study need to be reviewed periodically, and there is a need to establish periodically a research planning road map to address new key research issues as a state-run research institute.
The number of road deaths in 2018 is 3,781, 9.7% reduction from that of 2017. This achievement was possible by the central government’s traffic safety policy efforts. The contributing policies are more penalty on driving under influence, mandatory seatbelt for all seats, 5030 speed limit program, school zone, village zone, etc. These programs or policies were supported by central government’s traffic rule amendment and matching fund aid to local cities. To continue this road death reduction, local governments’ role is as important, because 72% of the road deaths were on local roads under the management of local cities.
The traffic safety targets of the government are reducing road deaths under 2,000 and pedestrian deaths under 1,000 by 2022. To reach the targets, the local cities’ traffic safety should be fast improved. Local cities have different socio-economic characteristics, so the policies should be customized. Local governments should develop their programs, and the central government should support them by rule amendments and financial support.
This study assessed local cities’ traffic safety policy systems, developed the manual for lowering speed limits, and suggested the way how to prevent illegal parking on fire truck paths. Through intensive investigation of pedestrian crash data, it found critical crash factor combinations on road deaths. Based on them, safety improvement measures were suggested for types of the combinations.
Road crashes are known to be highly related to driver errors. However, the human errors are more likely when they are combined with low-quality road environments. Thus, public authorities should take more efforts to improve road environments. Local governments should develop programs and measures, and the central government support them by improving legal framework and funding.
In the metropolitan area, long-distance wide-area traffic continues to increase due to population growth and spatial expansion, and as a result, road congestion is increasing in intensity and duration, and shortage of buses and congestion due to insufficient supply of wide-area buses at peak. This is a serious situation. Traffic congestion on the road generates many socioeconomic inconveniences such as increased travel time and increased greenhouse gas emissions, which weakens the competitiveness of the metropolitan area. Increasing the supply of wide-area buses in line with commute traffic has a problem of lowering operational efficiency of bus carriers due to low operational efficiency at non-peaks. On the contrary, insufficient supply causes inconveniences for public transportation users and encourages the use of private cars. There is a dilemma that results in increased traffic congestion. Therefore, both roads and public transportation need to balance capacity expansion and operational efficiency.
Once the Metropolitan Express Train(GTX, Great Train eXpress) is completed, mobility between regions in the metropolitan area will be greatly improved, and the passage of private cars and wide-area buses will be considerably changed, and congestion of roads and wide-area buses is expected to be alleviated to some extent. However, many housing site development projects, including the 3rd new town, are being promoted as if it were a squirt, so there is a need for additional measures.
In order to solve the problem of metropolitan wide area transportation, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of metropolitan wide area traffic, various development plans, and environmental changes, and to prepare improvement measures to effectively improve the metropolitan area wide area transportation system and to implement the efficient operation. In other words, it is necessary to establish comprehensive improvement measures for the wide-area transportation system, which combines effective facility supply and efficient operation.
The purpose of this study is to suggest ways to expand road facilities to improve traffic congestion and strengthen competitiveness in the metropolitan area, and to improve the public transportation system to solve the commuting problem of wide areas. To this end, we analyzed the current conditions and diagnosed problems in the metropolitan area such as the analysis of traffic conditions on major roads in the metropolitan area, the analysis of the congestion of wide-area buses, the analysis of the competing time of public transportation, and the comprehensive analysis by major axis. Based on this, we devised ways to improve major arterial road networks, introductions of the shoulder roads, new arterial road networks compared to inter-Korean exchanges, and suggested ways to expand the supply of wide-area buses and to improve the transfer system to increase the capacity of wide-area buses. It is hoped that this research can be the foundation for resolving wide-area traffic shortage in the metropolitan area.
Mobility is an essential element of activities for human’s life. Countries around the world have been making efforts to enhance quality of life towards overall industries, cultures, and even building cities by improving mobility services. Acute understanding individual movements should be the starting point for the efforts. Traditionally, people’s movements have been monitored and analyzed based on the survey data such as household travel survey and data from the infrastructure such as ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). These have limits in terms of spatiotemporal coverage and level of details providing information.
The fourth industrial revolution enables the collection of data explosively generated from all ICT devices connected to each other such as smartphones and car GPS devices under the hyper-connectivity environment. Especially, mobility big data give seamless and consecutive understanding of spatial and temporal characteristics of individual travel behavior with consistent criteria throughout the entire country. In advanced countries such as the United States, mobility report provides data-driven mobility indices and plays a pivotal role in understanding mobility patterns for inter- as well as intra-regions. South Korea also struggles in unveiling travel behavior to apply for advanced policies. However, these efforts are mostly focused on developing calculation methodologies for mobility indices through case studies, resulting in a lack of practical investigation and analysis of mobility in Korea.
In Korea, this calls for investigating mobility of people and vehicles throughout the entire nation. This report presents spatiotemporal results of both quantity and quality indices of movements. It is expected that this report facilitates jurisdictions make better decisions for efficient investment of future transportation technologies and policies towards smart city. We would like to extend our deep gratitude to the researchers and the advisory committee who have supported this study.
Roads can be divided into urban roads and rural roads depending on their geometry and utilization characteristics. Roads should be designed to meet their characteristics to improve traffic safety and efficiency. However, when designing urban roads and rural roads, engineers use ｢Regulation for the standards of the structure and facilities of roads｣ regardless of the characteristics of roads. Most of these standards are not suitable for urban road design because the regulation provide design specifications that reflect characteristics of rural roads. This problem has been constantly raised, and there has been an attempt to develop design guidelines for urban roads. However, there are no guidelines for designing urban roads so far, and still use the ｢Regulation for the standards of the structure and facilities of roads｣. In addition, the problem is more serious for collector roads and distributor roads, which have “community road” characteristics rather than roads that focus on the mobility of vehicles, such as arterial roads and sub-arterial roads, In this study, “community road” of in urban area is defined, and the design standards that are ambiguous or unfavorable to apply the ｢Regulation for the standards of the structure and facilities of roads｣ to urban roads are reviewed and improved.