As the Korea Government has established the national political agenda ‘the enhancement of publicness of national highway network, the much expensive tolls in private highway, which is a toll road managed by private sectors, is identified as one of the main flaws in publicness. The average toll of major 7 private highways is 1.60 times higher than those of national roads in 2018. It is clear that the roadmap for toll management is needed to achieve real progress. Thus, this report was initiated to establish national strategies in order to enhance the publicness of a private highway by reducing tolls.
While many experts have emphasized the publicness of roads, the researches on specific factors of road publicness have not been carried out. This report defined the definition and specific requisite of publicness of private roads. Then national policies and strategies were reviewed based on the definition of publicness of private roads. Throughout this process, the paper reveals the linkage between publicness of roads and tolls. Even the publicness should be considered in various ways, higher tolls are the main obstacle of enhancing road publicness especially in Korea road networks because there is no significant improvement in service quality in private roads. In order to fair services in both private and national roads, the policymakers should manage the level of tolls on private roads base on the service quality of roads.
The main issue in management policies for private highways is the private roads on the operation. Dislike to national highways, the private highways have a variety of aspects such as tolls, traffic, and operating expenses. This attributes to each characteristic of the private companies that run those roads. The guarantee of enforcement agreement including the dividend rate sometimes overrides the publicness of roads. Eventually, the specific strategies considering details of each private road section must be lunched to manage tolls in private roads in order to enhance the publicness of private highways
This report developed specific strategies for reducing and controlling tolls in each private road sector. Strategies are developed based on the case study. The report classified toll-cut methods based on the case studies and identifies the necessary conditions and requirements for applying the methods. New toll-cut methods also were developed by expert advice. As a result, the reports suggested 6 types of methods for lowering tolls.
Specific strategies for the road section were deduced by financial analysis based on cash flow following 5 steps. First, the report prioritized the private road sectors based on the level of tolls. In the second step, multiple possible methods were adopted before the financial feasibility. Each private road section has multiple alternatives in this step. In the third step, financial feasibility decides the realistic possibility of alternatives. An alternative that shows the highest feasibility was adopted for roadmap as ideal strategies. Then, a specific process was arranged to push forward a plan.
As a result, the roadmap includes not only strategies but also time tables to implement strategies. The time table suggested a sequential process. This is because resources, such as manpower and budget, were limited. The roadmap shows that the road section has high toll rates should be pushed ahead with priority. In addition, this report also suggests the policies for complementing roadmap such as the utilization of specialized Institutions or amendment to related legislation. The government is able to establish a comprehensive toll management system in Korea by referring to the various alternatives and strategies.
Chong Suk CHO et al.
In recent years, Korea is facing huge socioeconomic changes that have not been experienced in the past, such as the decrease in the number of working age population due to the aging society, concentration of population in large cities and decrease in population density in local cities due to urban polarization, changes in the values of life, climate change and lack of resources, and the development of advanced science and technology. Since the transportation SOCs have a great impact on people's lives and national competitiveness, it is crucial to identify new trends in this era of change and to establish future transportation SOC strategies to proactively respond to changes in future transportation demand.
This study aims to forecast future passenger travel demand changes and future transportation issues expected from these huge changes such as rapid population changes, urban polarization, changes in life values, climate change and resource shortages, and the development of advanced science and technology which we have never experienced before, In addition, by presenting transportation strategies to address future issues, we aim to improve the citizen’s quality of life in the future and strengthen national competitiveness.
To this end, we focus on studying changes in passenger travel demands and future issues in accordance with changes in population and socioeconomic conditions until today, and derive the possibility of demand changes and the importance of future issues through expert surveys. In addition, this paper aims to establish future transportation SOC strategies by presenting transportation policies in response to each derived future issue.
The transportation SOC facilities covered in this study are limited to passenger transportation facilities, and the scope of transportation mode is limited to land transportation such as roads, railroads, and buses. The spatial scope covers the whole country, excluding ports and airport facilities that primarily handle international travel. For the time range, past 20 years of data is used for trend analysis, and the target year is set as 2045 for future traffic demand forecast.
This study suggests the transportation SOC strategy which is a response to changes in future passenger travel demands and includes four steps. First, we analyze passenger travel trends by major mega trends. Second, the meta-analysis is conducted to predict future changes in passenger travel demand and identify future major issues. Third, the importance of future transportation issues is calculated through the expert survey. Fourth, we propose transportation policies and strategies for major future issues by considering national and foreign policies.
The main results of this study are summarized as follows. First, five trends affecting future transportation demand are selected through the review of existing literature. The selected five trends are demographic change, change in values and quality of life, urban polarization, science and technology development, climate change and resource shortage. These five major trends are again divided into 18 detailed trends, and the expected changes in traffic demand for each of these detailed trends are predicted through relevant literature reviews and decisions made by the research team . In addition, 29 prospective future transportation issues are selected for each detailed trend. Finally, through the expert survey, we select the importance of each future transportation issues and suggest the detailed countermeasures of transportation policies and priorities based on these importance. It is expected that the transportation policy for each future transportation issues presented in this study will be used as a basis for establishing future transportation strategies for the central and local governments.
Hee Cheol SHIN · Jong-Deok LEE · Seongyong PARK
1. The necessity and purpose of research
Changes in traffic trends are taking place due to the arrival of future societies, including entry into super-aged societies, the increase in the employment rate of women and the elderly, and the decrease in the population of provincial cities due to the concentration of population in large cities. To meet the people's expectations regarding this social trend change and national transport, the tasks undertaken by the Korea Transport Institute need to be implemented more systematically, and research tasks to reflect and address the needs of the people's long-term road map tailored to the people's eyes and the needs of the people are needed. It also needs to respond to rapidly changing traffic conditions, find and select research tasks in preparation for mid- to long-term prospects for future traffic demand, and establish strategies for promoting research tasks that can enhance national competitiveness in the 21st century.
The purpose of this study is to establish the planning system necessary for the development of transport policy issues that are consistent with changes in internal and external conditions, and for the development of transport policy issues that are felt by the people through the people's needs and future society's prospects for change.
2. Main research contents
This study derived key research issues and research performance strategies through internal and external traffic policy research environment analysis, future change and people's needs prospect and influence analysis, and presented improvement measures through analysis of the researchers' task performance system to resolve key research issues.
The analysis of the environment for internal and external traffic policy research was initiated by the analysis of the government's national affairs and policy issues, and the analysis of the performance of the previous research carried out identified the internal and external policy research environment, and the implications of the traffic policy study were derived by predicting future social changes.
The analysis of future changes and the outlook and impact of the people's needs were explored through market research and needs surveys for the general public by reviewing future social trends on the status of policy research and predicting the impact of these changes on the transport sector. In addition, preference and feasibility studies were conducted for experts and general users by predicting future transport services, and key research issues and research performance strategies were derived. Priorities by project area were derived for working-level officials of relevant ministries, focusing on key issues derived.
3. Conclusion and Policy Proposal
In this study, three key research issues were derived while developing strategies to cope with various changes in social and economic conditions.
'Key Research Issue I' is 'Future Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution,' which consists of mobility innovation, paradigm shift response, and innovation-based policy trust, while 'Core Research Issue II' is 'Transportation Plan to Improve the Quality of Life' composed of balanced support for national territory development, support for people's livelihood and fair economy, and enhancement of public safety. The "core research III" is a "study on state affairs for inclusive innovation growth" consisting of responses to the new economic guidance on the Korean Peninsula, including strengthening the public nature of the Transportation SOC, creating a job economy, reconciliation and cooperation between the two Koreas and the New South.
And, as a national think tank, the government proposed a survey plan to proactively explore future trends, policy demands, and research issues to respond to people's needs, focusing on three key research issues in the transportation sector to cope with future changes.
As a national think tank, the main body is an institution with an important role to contribute to the nation's transport development and government transport policies, and it is important to develop strategies for responding to changes in the transportation sector in response to future social changes. However, since modern society is changing very rapidly and people's needs and social and economic values are also changing rapidly, the three key research issues presented in this study need to be reviewed periodically, and there is a need to establish periodically a research planning road map to address new key research issues as a state-run research institute.
The number of road deaths in 2018 is 3,781, 9.7% reduction from that of 2017. This achievement was possible by the central government’s traffic safety policy efforts. The contributing policies are more penalty on driving under influence, mandatory seatbelt for all seats, 5030 speed limit program, school zone, village zone, etc. These programs or policies were supported by central government’s traffic rule amendment and matching fund aid to local cities. To continue this road death reduction, local governments’ role is as important, because 72% of the road deaths were on local roads under the management of local cities.
The traffic safety targets of the government are reducing road deaths under 2,000 and pedestrian deaths under 1,000 by 2022. To reach the targets, the local cities’ traffic safety should be fast improved. Local cities have different socio-economic characteristics, so the policies should be customized. Local governments should develop their programs, and the central government should support them by rule amendments and financial support.
This study assessed local cities’ traffic safety policy systems, developed the manual for lowering speed limits, and suggested the way how to prevent illegal parking on fire truck paths. Through intensive investigation of pedestrian crash data, it found critical crash factor combinations on road deaths. Based on them, safety improvement measures were suggested for types of the combinations.
Road crashes are known to be highly related to driver errors. However, the human errors are more likely when they are combined with low-quality road environments. Thus, public authorities should take more efforts to improve road environments. Local governments should develop programs and measures, and the central government support them by improving legal framework and funding.
In the metropolitan area, long-distance wide-area traffic continues to increase due to population growth and spatial expansion, and as a result, road congestion is increasing in intensity and duration, and shortage of buses and congestion due to insufficient supply of wide-area buses at peak. This is a serious situation. Traffic congestion on the road generates many socioeconomic inconveniences such as increased travel time and increased greenhouse gas emissions, which weakens the competitiveness of the metropolitan area. Increasing the supply of wide-area buses in line with commute traffic has a problem of lowering operational efficiency of bus carriers due to low operational efficiency at non-peaks. On the contrary, insufficient supply causes inconveniences for public transportation users and encourages the use of private cars. There is a dilemma that results in increased traffic congestion. Therefore, both roads and public transportation need to balance capacity expansion and operational efficiency.
Once the Metropolitan Express Train(GTX, Great Train eXpress) is completed, mobility between regions in the metropolitan area will be greatly improved, and the passage of private cars and wide-area buses will be considerably changed, and congestion of roads and wide-area buses is expected to be alleviated to some extent. However, many housing site development projects, including the 3rd new town, are being promoted as if it were a squirt, so there is a need for additional measures.20
In order to solve the problem of metropolitan wide area transportation, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of metropolitan wide area traffic, various development plans, and environmental changes, and to prepare improvement measures to effectively improve the metropolitan area wide area transportation system and to implement the efficient operation. In other words, it is necessary to establish comprehensive improvement measures for the wide-area transportation system, which combines effective facility supply and efficient operation.
The purpose of this study is to suggest ways to expand road facilities to improve traffic congestion and strengthen competitiveness in the metropolitan area, and to improve the public transportation system to solve the commuting problem of wide areas. To this end, we analyzed the current conditions and diagnosed problems in the metropolitan area such as the analysis of traffic conditions on major roads in the metropolitan area, the analysis of the congestion of wide-area buses, the analysis of the competing time of public transportation, and the comprehensive analysis by major axis. Based on this, we devised ways to improve major arterial road networks, introductions of the shoulder roads, new arterial road networks compared to inter-Korean exchanges, and suggested ways to expand the supply of wide-area buses and to improve the transfer system to increase the capacity of wide-area buses. It is hoped that this research can be the foundation for resolving wide-area traffic shortage in the metropolitan area.
Mobility is an essential element of activities for human’s life. Countries around the world have been making efforts to enhance quality of life towards overall industries, cultures, and even building cities by improving mobility services. Acute understanding individual movements should be the starting point for the efforts. Traditionally, people’s movements have been monitored and analyzed based on the survey data such as household travel survey and data from the infrastructure such as ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). These have limits in terms of spatiotemporal coverage and level of details providing information.
The fourth industrial revolution enables the collection of data explosively generated from all ICT devices connected to each other such as smartphones and car GPS devices under the hyper-connectivity environment. Especially, mobility big data give seamless and consecutive understanding of spatial and temporal characteristics of individual travel behavior with consistent criteria throughout the entire country. In advanced countries such as the United States, mobility report provides data-driven mobility indices and plays a pivotal role in understanding mobility patterns for inter- as well as intra-regions. South Korea also struggles in unveiling travel behavior to apply for advanced policies. However, these efforts are mostly focused on developing calculation methodologies for mobility indices through case studies, resulting in a lack of practical investigation and analysis of mobility in Korea.
In Korea, this calls for investigating mobility of people and vehicles throughout the entire nation. This report presents spatiotemporal results of both quantity and quality indices of movements. It is expected that this report facilitates jurisdictions make better decisions for efficient investment of future transportation technologies and policies towards smart city. We would like to extend our deep gratitude to the researchers and the advisory committee who have supported this study.
Roads can be divided into urban roads and rural roads depending on their geometry and utilization characteristics. Roads should be designed to meet their characteristics to improve traffic safety and efficiency. However, when designing urban roads and rural roads, engineers use ｢Regulation for the standards of the structure and facilities of roads｣ regardless of the characteristics of roads. Most of these standards are not suitable for urban road design because the regulation provide design specifications that reflect characteristics of rural roads. This problem has been constantly raised, and there has been an attempt to develop design guidelines for urban roads. However, there are no guidelines for designing urban roads so far, and still use the ｢Regulation for the standards of the structure and facilities of roads｣. In addition, the problem is more serious for collector roads and distributor roads, which have “community road” characteristics rather than roads that focus on the mobility of vehicles, such as arterial roads and sub-arterial roads, In this study, “community road” of in urban area is defined, and the design standards that are ambiguous or unfavorable to apply the ｢Regulation for the standards of the structure and facilities of roads｣ to urban roads are reviewed and improved.
Top Korean tech firm Kakao already operates a ride-hailing app called Kakao Taxi, which allows users to connect to yellow cabs. Ride-sharing apps have been outlawed in Asia's fourth-largest economy since 2015. Small startups have still faced regulatory issues, however — rideshare app PoolUs was sanctioned in 2017 for interpreting “commuting hours” too loosely, and had to lay off 70 percent of its employees. A startup called Luxi also faced issues, and was sold to Kakao in February this year, perhaps sparking the tech company’s push into the space. Tada, which launched just last month, has tried to avoid some of these hurdles with a new business model using shared 11-seater vans instead of personal cars.
Revenue in the Ride Hailing segment amounts to US$528m in 2019 and expected to show an annual growth rate (CAGR 2019-2023) of 7.1%, resulting in a market volume of US$694m by 2023.
But, ride-hailing network company is still illegal in Republic of Korea under the Passenger Car Transport Law.
We offered the restructuring solution for the legal framework and Analyze multiple scenarios to prevent bigger conflict, based on legal research and referred foreign legislative cases and lawsuits. In order to protect the taxi drivers we suggest the passenger service levy for the ride-hailing company to give a compensation package for the taxi industry.
The modal share of buses in the country has generally increased due to the introduction of the intelligent transport system (ITS), transfer discounts, the One Card All Pass, and BRT expansion. However, in these days, an increasing trend in the modal share of buses in the country has been slowing down and switching to a decreasing trend due to an increase in the number of privately-owned passenger vehicles, the expansion of the KTX network, etc. The main reasons for an increase in the modal share of buses has such limitations as an increase in the expectation level on mobility due to the appearance of new means of transportation such as shared transportation, a decline in the mobility service level due to the lack of bus drivers, a decline in the profitability of bus operators, and the bus-related accidents.
The innovation of public transportation from the viewpoint of transit automation is being promoted in order to overcome the aforementioned limitations of public transportation and to increase the competitiveness of public bus transportation by providing a new service including a seamless inter-modal service, integration service of multi-modal services, and the first-last mile mobility service. The development of technologies and policies regarding transit automation is actively being carried out both domestically and abroad based on autonomous driving vehicles, demand-responsive mobility technology, and connected smart infrastructure. However, the development of technologies and policies related to Transit Automation at home and abroad is still at its early stage in comparison to that of the automation of passenger vehicles and trucks. In particular, the autonomous passenger vehicle and truck driving technology and service are at the commercialization stage based on various deployment projects with connected infrastructure technology. However, the autonomous bus driving technology is still at the sensor-based autonomous driving stage. As such, the technology is insufficient for commercialization in terms of securing expandability and safety.
In this study, the definition of the automated and connected driving-based smart public transportation system in comparison to the previous ITS-based public transportation system and the classification of public transportation service were presented through the review of domestic and overseas cases. Furthermore, the necessary technology and infrastructure requirements were drawn by analyzing autonomous driving vehicle and automated driving-related infrastructure technologies and reviewing public transportation application measures in order to revitalize the automation of public transportation and relevant businesses. Lastly, the connected and automated driving-based public transportation introduction strategy and the system drawing plan that fitted the current status of public transportation infrastructure in the country were presented based on such analyses.
1) Definition of automated and connected driving-based smart public transportation system and the classification of services through the case review
The previous public transportation system consists of the means of transportation, transportation facilities and traffic operation, and users, since the collection and provision of traffic information in real time have become available due to the introduction of advanced transportation systems and technologies such as ITS, it has provided more prompt, safe, and convenient smart transportation to the users and operators. In terms of the public transportation system, it consists of buses/taxis (means of transportation), the infrastructure (transportation facilities), management center (traffic operation), and passengers (users), and the transportation information management system-based ITS service is currently provided. The characteristic of the previous public transportation system is the systematic connection system between transportation facilities and users (passengers and operators) based on the real-time operation information of transportation. In comparison to this characteristic, the automated and connected driving-based smart public transportation system is the linkage system where the automation and sharing of the public transportation service is being advanced according to the connection and development between the means of transportation, transportation facilities and users (operators and passengers), and the basic mobility as well as the safety. All of these components are secured according to the characteristics of public transportation and this transportation system provides the customized transportation service for users based on the efficiency in the operation.
The services in the automated and connected driving-based smart public transportation system that were previously defined were classified into seven services according to the following: vehicle type, availability of exclusive lanes, form of bus stop operation, number of bus stops, route operation method, method of use or approach by users, and operation method.
- S1. AV Fixed-Route Transit Service_BRT: Public transportation system for operating automated and connected driving vehicles (large-sized buses) on an exclusive lane with fixed routes
- S2. AV Fixed-Route Transit Service_Branch line: Public transportation system for operating autonomous driving vehicles (large-sized buses) on normal roads with fixed routes
- S3. AV On-Demand Transit Service_Group: Public transportation system for operating automated and connected driving vehicles (public bus, shuttle bus, etc.) on normal roads according to certain demand response of users such as commuting. There are a limited number of points of departure and destinations, and some routes are fixed.
- S4. AV On-Demand Transit Service_By-Pass: Public transportation system for operating automated and connected driving vehicles (public bus, shuttle bus, etc.) on normal roads according to the response to users’ demand. Nonstop operation or by-passing operation at a place where there is no user demand for public transportation in comparison to general public transportation which requires stopping at all stations.
- S5. AV Paratransit (On-Demand)_Downtown area: Public transportation service based on automated and connected driving shuttle buses operated according to the demand of users in the downtown area. Users are allowed to use the service by using the phone and a smartphone app in order to improve the operator’s efficiency and user convenience. The routes and bus stops within a certain area can be optimized freely for the operation.
- S6. AV Paratransit (On-Demand)_Deprived area: automated and connected driving shuttle bus-based public transportation service operated according to the demand of users in deprived areas such as a rural area. Since the number of users is less in comparison to that of the downtown area, focus is made on the securing of mobility and efficiency in the operator based on advance reservation rather than the optimization of operation. It is possible to integrate and provide the mobility service with other systems such as the parcel system service and unmanned movie system.
- S7. AV Taxi: Passenger vehicle-based mobility service operated fully on a reservation basis according to the demand of users.
2) Drawing of necessary technologies and infrastructure level for each public transportation service
The autonomous driving vehicle technologies and autonomous driving-related infrastructure technologies were analyzed through the case study and literature analysis. Accordingly, the necessary technologies for providing the seven services drawn earlier were classified. In the analysis of autonomous driving vehicle technologies, 15 autonomous driving-related technology use cases were drawn by analyzing the visioning system (radar sensor, LIDAR sensor, computer vision system, ultrasonic sensor) and actuator system (steering technology, braking technology, power-train technology). In the analysis of autonomous driving-related infrastructure technologies, 26 autonomous driving-related technology use cases were drawn by analyzing the cloud (dynamic scheduling technology, real-time information provision technology, big data technology), mapping (HD map, dynamic map, live map, map transfer technology, geocoding), and communication (dedicated short-range communication, cellular/wireless communication, vehicle positioning and mobility technology, processing and software technology).
As a result of drawing necessary technologies related to public transportation automation based on the expert survey, all autonomous driving vehicle-related technologies were necessary with the exception of a number of technologies, including the drowsy driving prevention technology. However, the degree of such needs varied, and the S1. AV Fixed-Route Transit Service_BRT, where the level of infrastructure maintenance was generally high, showed a high need only for the fundamental technologies necessary for longitudinal and lateral control. The result of the expert survey shows a high need for cloud-related technologies that are closely related to the efficiency in the operation of public transportation among the autonomous driving-related infrastructure technologies for the whole service field. The AV On-Demand Transit Service and the AV Paratransit Service, which particularly needed to manage the schedules and operate vehicles dynamically, showed the highest need for cloud technology. For the technologies related to driving assistance, mobility, and safety, there is a high need for a digital road sign technology that is closely related to the static map and technologies closely related to the dynamic map such as information provisions for lane-based traffic, signals, and accidents. There is a relatively low need for external information-based control and warning related technologies in comparison to other infrastructure technologies. However, there is a high need for a waiting line warning in comparison to other services. This is because the position of a waiting line significantly affects the safety of autonomous driving.
3) Autonomous driving-based public transportation service introduction strategies
The introduction strategy for each service was drawn by evaluating the driving suitability of current public transportation-related road infrastructure. The evaluation comprised the driving test and its comparison with the necessary infrastructure technology level for supporting autonomous driving for each service drawn earlier. It is expected that it is possible to introduce autonomous driving based on ‘vision sensor + deep learning + radar sensor’ without significant improvement of the existing infrastructure for the ‘S1. BRT’ Service and the ‘S2. Branch line’ Service. Both service types show relatively high driving suitability of the current infrastructure and the low infrastructure technology level necessary for supporting autonomous driving. In the case of the ‘S3. Group’ Service and the ‘S4. By-Pass’ Service, both show moderate driving suitability of the current infrastructure and the moderate infrastructure technology level necessary for supporting autonomous driving. For these services, the possible development of the optimization solution is expected by considering the improvement of the physical infrastructure as well as the provision of active safety support service through the establishment of the necessary digital infrastructure and C-ITS such as a highly precise map. The ‘S5. Downtown Area’ Service and the ‘S6. Deprived Area’ Service showed low driving suitability of the current infrastructure and the high infrastructure technology level necessary for supporting autonomous driving. For these services, the possible introduction of an autonomous driving vehicle-based service is expected only when it is accompanied by measures for various factors, including poor marking status, illegal vehicle parking and stopping, sharp curves in roads with a narrow width, obstacles and pedestrians, and speed bumps. In particular, the local load where the ‘S6. Deprived Area’ Service is provided shows very low autonomous driving suitability of the road. Therefore, it is considered that taking a strategy to establish digital infrastructure based on main routes would be advantageous for fast commercialization.
4) Conception of autonomous driving-based public transportation system
In comparison to the current public transportation system, it is expected that the town bus among the inter-city and transit bus, feeder bus, and the town bus included in the current public transportation system, will be converted into the demand bus for improving efficiency and travel convenience. It is expected that the fixed operation method and fare system will be maintained for the inter-city and transit bus and the feeder bus even if the autonomous driving service is provided. Of course, the autonomous driving technology can be introduced faster for a section where the infrastructure environment is already prepared such as the BRT system. However, as there is a high traffic demand as well as clear peak and non-peak traffic patterns, such a service will be switched to a fully autonomous service based on the means of transportation in the method to reinforce the safety rather than the efficiency in the operation.
The most significant change in the semi-public transportation system is the chartered bus. Generally, chartered buses are commuting buses, such as shuttle buses or tour buses, for certain private companies. It is expected that the operation method and fare system for such bus services will be switched to the complete demand responsive operation method and fare system. The previous demand responsive operation method and the flexible fare system for carpool, taxi, and sharing-based taxi services will be maintained. However, it should be noted that various business models and operators will emerge for the operation of such services according to the provision, operation, and management of autonomous driving services as well as the operation and management of sharing services.
Domestic public transportation is one of the key traffic policy fields in the country. A change in the autonomous driving-based smart public transportation system is significant for the support of transportation innovation in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution. It is expected that the comparative analysis of the infrastructure level, service introduction strategies, and conception of the future public transportation system based on the analysis of actual autonomous driving-related vehicle and infrastructure technologies will serve as the fundamental research for the establishment of public transportation policies in the future. In this regard, the establishment of R&D plans for key technologies for supporting public transportation, development of policies, and the amendment of laws and regulations that support such plans should be carried out in connection with the result of this study. Moreover, it is necessary to promote commercialization through the integration of technology development and service application.
The National Transportation Master Plan is, not only, a national top ranked legal plan that suggests efficient building directions for transportation-related plans such as land, sea, logistics and air transportation policies and transportation facilities in 20-year units, but also, the plan to set a long-term and comprehensive investment directions.
Korean government should establish a second plan with the completion of the 20-year long-term planning period for the first plan (2000-2020). However, our future is in the era of increasing maintenance budgets, the challenges of the demographic and social structural changes, and major changes in the new mobility age with the decreasing of large-scale transport construction projects.
This study suggests the directions, main tasks, work schedule and implementation system of the 2nd National Transportation Master Plan through reviewing the previous studies and foreign cases related to long-term transport plan, investigating the prospects of the future transport, gathering the opinions of the experts.
The vision of new plan is “Intelligentizing the National Transportation Network by applying new technology to the national network of Korea”. This study propose the vision of the 2nd National Transport Network Plan and five main directions of investment : 1. Strengthening regional development capacity, 2. Introduction and utilization of the new transport technology, 3. Efficient management of the traffic problems in urban/non-urban areas, 4. Establishment of East Asia transport and logistics network, 5. System Improvement match up to technological innovation. This study also suggests eleven tasks related to five main items.
We hope the results of this study can be used in the 2nd National Transportation Master Plan (2021-2040), the 5th Mid-term Transport Facility Investment Plan, and the transport plan such as roads, railways, logistics and airports.
This study starts to analyze actual railway safety policy in Korea. The keystone was built by the railway safety act, implemented in 2005 but there were several changes especially in 2014 by introducing railway safety management system(SMS). Nonetheless, Korean railway safety policy is still considered punitive than preventive, because of several reasons.
The railway safety act was conceived in 2004, the launching year of KTX. About 14 year after, railway users in Korea increase more than 60%. There is 14 millions users a day by the statistics of 2018. However, the railway safety system is not changed at all until the start. The supervise and monitor activities about railway undertaking and infrastructure managers, essential tasks for railway safety, are commissioned to TS, specialized in automobile safety activity. Otherwise, railway technical issues are also commissioned to KRRI, R&D Institute for railway industry.
In Europe, there exist directive EU 2016/798, equivalent to Korean railway safety act who recommend to establish national safety authority for each member country. National safety authority is responsible for every issues about railway safety such as authorization, certification, investigation, supervise, monitoring, etc. In Japan, there are no special institution for railway safety but there exist very strong constraints to railway undertaking. Europe and Japan oblige to publish report about railway safety annually in order to work systematical feedback. Korean air and marine transport safety system are operated by three steps; accident investigation, authorization & certification and supervise & monitor distinctive to industrial promotion activity. But in railway sector, KRRI is to act for industrial promotion but also safety regulation because he is commissioned to type approval(certification) by enforcement act of railway safety.
The first proposition of study is to establish railway safety authority in Korea, which carries out all tasks about railway safety, and report annually railway safety events, changes and legal improvement. The second is to shift railway safety policy more preventive and helpful for railway industry.