Urban transportation in modern cities is car-oriented. This auto-oriented system is convenient but makes environment more problematic, so that paradigm shift to green transport system is needed. However, motorized transport system is inevitable. Electric vehicles are the result. Electric vehicles have disadvantages such as large parking space compared with that of bicycles. Therefore, personal mobilities (PM) have appeared to solve space problem of cars as well as inconvenience of human power transport.
This kind of personal mobilities are getting more popular in not only domestic but also global market. However, lack of legislation makes PM inconvenient. Road Transport Act forces people to use driveway than sidewalk or bikeway, but PMs are slow and dangerous on driveways. License and helmet are necessary, but users ride without license and helmet.
Survey results show that PM has high potential for transport purpose. This research suggests several legislative improvements for safer and more convenient transport use. Especially, this research focuses on the conditions for PMs to use bikeway since Korean government considers bikeway as a candidate. First, PMs must be similar with bicycles in size, weight, and speed. Second, PMs must be safer than bicycles. Third, consensus between bikeway users is essential.
The result is not a final one but beginning and foundation stone for more use of PMs.
Estimation methodologies were developed for traffic accident costs in Korea. Road traffic accident costs were based on data from the integrated road traffic database provided by the Road Traffic Authority of Korea.
This study estimates the social costs of traffic accidents in 2014 using the gross lost output approach. This approach is considered to be the most suitable method for the economic environment of Korea. Accident costs consist of future income loss, medical costs, property damage costs, related administration costs, and PGS (pain, grief and suffering) of the victims. The Korea Transport Institute has been measuring the annual road accident costs of Korea since 1995. In 2003, it began to estimate total multimodal accident costs, including those from the rail, marine and aviation sectors.
A total of 1,130,899 accidents were reported in 2014, resulting in 5,262 deaths and 1,793,091 injuries included in all transportation modes. The resulting total accident costs totalled 47.3 trillion won, equivalent to approximately 3.18% of Korea’s 2014 GDP.
Roadway accident costs amounted to 46.8 trillion won. These costs accounted for nearly the entirety of total transportation accident costs. The accident costs of marine, rail and aviation modes were 445.6 billion won, 45.5 billion won and 15.1 billion won, respectively. Accident costs per accident showed that aviation, marine, railway and road accidents cost 2.5 billion won, 335.0 million won, 236.8 million won, and 34.4 million won respectively.
Psychological costs, which are expressed as a ratio of involvement in total compensations, were not influenced by varying judgment contexts, specifically change in perspective from victim to culprit or vice versa. However, subjective expectations of total compensations, which by the definition of willingness to pay depends on one’s perspective, were highly contingent upon the amount a victim is guaranteed against damage or loss.
The psychological unit cost per individual amounted to 285 million won for fatality, 74.6 million won for serious injury, and 6.3 million won for slight injury. The psychological costs of road, rail, marine and aviation modes were 23.0 trillion won, 18.1 billion won, 128.9 billion won, 1.6 billion won, respectively.
Our purpose is deduction of medium and long-term strategy of 5-year and 10-year and organized promotion work considering change of policy environment which is related with rail transport operation. For this, we will deeply review the development plan for railway industry 2013 which is already decided and performed, in addition to the third national railway network construction plan and the third comprehensive plan for railway safety. Based on this plan, we will check whether introduce operating rolling stocks(trains) and new ones or not by line as well as operation plan of new line and cooperation plan with existing line. Also we will review the essential parts to operate railway such as level of service and way of administration, systems should be changed or newlyorganized according to change of policy. Individual transport strategy of rail transport service operator concentrates on the relation with users as a management strategy to maximize their profitability and asks government for support. Railway operation strategy, we reviewed on this study, induces efficient use of national railway network. Also it clarifies the right and duty of railway transport business to induce service improvement based on fair competition order and suggests autonomy and limitation. In addition, it would induce efficiency improvement steadily by demanding what it needs to develop administration efficiency among existing policies(new investment or system change). Railway was literally just ‘a way made with iron’ but it starts to be seen as ‘a (transport) service way’ after reform of railway structure in 2004 and introduction of high speed rail. It is considered that national plan for inducing improvement of service and operation efficiency. Thus, it is important to make a frame to establish medium and long term railway operation strategy with higher goal than past. A legal basis for government to lead 5-year and 10-year of medium and long term railway operation plan or strategy should be prepared on the ‘Railroad Enterprise Act’. Also orientation and manual of (mid and long term) rail transport operating plan should be suggested on the enforcement ordinance or regulation and maximize the efficacy when the plan will be established later. Rail transport operating plan is highly related with existing national railway network plan, railway industry development plan and railway comprehensive safety plan. Therefore mechanism, to adjust these plans together in the establishment of plan and deduction of action plan process, needs to be secured.
Estimation methodologies were developed for traffic accident costs in Korea. Road traffic accident costs were based on data from the integrated road traffic database provided by the Road Traffic Authority of Korea. This study estimates the social costs of traffic accidents in 2013 using the gross lost output approach. This approach is considered to be the most suitable method for the economic environment of Korea. Accident costs consist of future income loss, medical costs, property damage costs, related administration costs, and PGS (pain, grief and suffering) of the victims. The Korea Transport Institute has been measuring the annual road accident costs of Korea since 1995. In 2003, it began to estimate total multimodal accident costs, including those from the rail, marine and aviation sectors. A total of 1,120,538 accidents were reported in 2013, resulting in 5,240 deaths and 1,783,152 injuries included in all transportation modes. The resulting total accident costs totalled 42.3 trillion won, equivalent to approximately 2.96% of Korea’s 2013 GDP. Roadway accident costs amounted to 41.8 trillion won. These costs accounted for nearly the entirety of total transportation accident costs. The accident costs of aviation, marine and rail modes were 277.0 billion won, 143.0 billion won and 52.6 billion won, respectively. Accident costs per accident showed that aviation, railway, marine and road accidents cost 21.3 billion won, 231.2 million won, 130.9 million won, and 30.5 million won respectively. Psychological costs, which are expressed as a ratio of involvement in total compensations, were not influenced by varying judgment contexts, specifically change in perspective from victim to culprit or vice versa. However, subjective expectations of total compensations, which by the definition of willingness to pay depends on one’s perspective, were highly contingent upon the amount a victim is guaranteed against damage or loss. The psychological unit cost per individual amounted to 281 million won for fatality, 73.6 million won for serious injury, and 6.2 million won for slight injury. The psychological costs of road, rail, marine and aviation modes were 20.4 trillion won, 15.6 billion won, and 41.3 billion won, 7.9 billion won, respectively.
Management of railway facilities has been carried out quite practically. After ‘Sewol’ ferry accident, however, at the time of demand for safety higher nationally, it would be possible to maintain ‘safe railway’ with facility management which gives people satisfaction. In addition it is very important as there are almost 10 millions railway-users with the expansion of high speed rail and metropolitan subways in expansion widely.
It is time to prepare comprehensive policy measure for railway facilities which threaten railway safety. Our key goal is to perform appropriate railway facility administration in view of safety. For this purpose, we should consider management of deteriorated facility, plan for accident prevention, and decrease in safety accident at the station building etc. At first, for deterioration, we should secure budget and investigate stably until the deterioration will be resolved. It should be able to administrate deterioration level of 10~20% within 20~30years through investment more than deterioration ratio which occur every year. Steady budget support about 470billion to 740 billion won is needed for this and it would be lead to complete resolve of deterioration around the year of 2030.
To prevent line falling accident from platform, overall installation of Platform Screen Door is raised. Fortunately, government has plan for this on the metropolitan area until 2017. Also the fence that prevents railroad jaywalking would be set up soon throughout the whole country. Finally, we should reduce safety accident by categorizing it by stages and supplementing facilities with education and public relations. For legalization of safety supplement of railway facility, we have to make regulation that it has to be proposed with the problem about improvement and supplement of a facility when we establish ‘National railroad network plan’ based on ‘the Railroad Construction Act’ It has to be able to know the result of investment every year by securing ‘plan for railroad facility deterioration’, the administration system which clearly shows the effect and process of railroad facility investment from a safety standpoint.
The Korean government is institutionalizing an investment appraisal system that requires the evaluation of state projects through various stages such as conception-phase feasibility assessment, preliminary feasibility analysis, feasibility evaluation, design development & construction document, and ex-post evaluation. The actual decisionmaking process for project implementation, however, is focused on preliminary feasibility analysis, thus making it difficult for each competent ministry or agency to properly execute the functions of their own feasibility evaluations. In an effort to improve investment efficiency in traffic facilities, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has recently been pursuing a policy aimed at raising the effectiveness of feasibility evaluation and intensifying mid-project assessment. As a way to increase the effectiveness of feasibility appraisal, the National Integrated Transport Efficiency Act stipulates that the costs for outsourcing relevant services be publicly announced. Yet, the government has so far applied the “standards regarding payment related to construction technology services,” which are based on the Construction Technology Promotion Act, in paying for such services. With regard to this practice, the Traffic Facility Investment Evaluation Association raised an issue, pointing out that the “standards” had been set too low for the transport sector. In order to address this problem, the association has come up with a new “(draft) proposal for feasibility evaluation outsourcing costs.” Before posting the proposed costs, it is necessary to deal with the overlapping functions between the feasibility evaluation scheme for state projects and the feasibility analysis system based on the Construction Technology Promotion Act. There is also a need to readjust the levels of outsourcing costs. This study presents a solution devised through analysis of the adequacy of the proposed outsourcing costs and the “payment standards for construction technology services” as well as through questionnaire surveys of experts and the operation of a task force team. I expect that estimation of reasonable outsourcing costs for traffic demand prediction and feasibility evaluation services through the cost posting system will contribute to enhancing investment efficiency in traffic facilities. I also hope that the outcome of this study will help improve the effectiveness of feasibility evaluation, thereby contributing to enhancing the efficiency of traffic facility investments and raising the level of reliability of traffic demand predictions.
Urban transportation planning area and traffic impact area were designated for urban transportation management system in 2004. But their investigation and readjustment reflecting the change of social economic, administrative district and traffic conditions has not been conducted until now that 10 years have passed. The urban transportation planning area and traffic impact area are vary important matter that is spatial range of urban transportation demand management policyenforcement.
Thus the readjustment work of these are needed according to current condition change in the last 10 years. Therefor this research investigates effectiveness of established urban transportation planning area and traffic impact area by applying existing designation criteria and consider new designation criteria and methodology for more aggressive deal with urban transportation problem. The following additional criteria is proposed in order to consider population change, foreign case analysis, securing of urban transportation area and securing linkages with transit terminal.
① expanding lower population criteria of urban transportation planning area by 10,000 people, ② standardizing designation unit of traffic impact area to sigungu unit, ③ considering two-way trip between urban transportation planning area and traffic impact area, ④ suggesting additional criteria of traffic impact area including KTX station and airport. Urban transportation planning area and traffic impact area are readjusted by applying new suggested criteria in this research. In designating of urban transportation planning area, existing city urban transportation planning areas are maintained without a great change ofestablished system. The results of this research are undergone a convergence process of relevant local government officials.
The total export value of Korea was 572.7 billion USD in 2014. Among them, the amount of export to China was 145.3 billion USD reaching 25.4% of total exports. Past and current governments have been promoting their continental linkage plans including Nordpolitik (Roh Tae-woo government), Iron Silk Road (Kim Dae-jung government) and recent Eurasia initiatives. These plans should be possible under close coordination with China because South Korea is located in the far east of the Eurasian continent and has limited land accessibility. China's future national policies, such as the One Belt, One Road and AIIB, need to be closely analyzed. Based on these analyses, it is necessary to propose strategic directions to help national interests.
The One Belt, One Road policy aims to stimulate the investment of Asia’s infrastructure and it needs to be well understood as it is China's primary strategy to lead the development of the Asia region as the second largest economic power of the world. The establishment of AIIB is to financially support the implementation of One Belt, One Road policy. The Korean government decided to join as a founder member of AIIB and therefore is required to prepare a strategy to cope with these changes.
In response, this study suggests seven strategic proposals. The first is to discover promising transportation infrastructure related to One Belt, One Road policy. Second is the activation of our oversees construction orders through public-private partnerships. The third are incentives to invest resources in Northeast Asia. Fourth is to establish an alternative partnership. Fifth will utilize the Greater Tumen Initiative and Northeast Asia Export-Import Bank Council. Sixth will participate in the AIIB governance. And finally the seventh is the initiation of multilateral economic cooperation based on transportation logistics infrastructure plans.
Government manages air mileage obtained during public business trips of civil servants, which is called 'public air mileage', and utilizes it for the next business trips. Because air mileage is accumulated into personnel air mileage account, not into the government account, it is difficult for government to monitor and manage public air mileage.
Moreover, public air mileage has not been utilized efficiently because it is partitioned into each civil servant and each airline's account.
Therefore, it is required for government to improve air mileage program to manage and use public air mileage. First of all, the analysis of Government Travel Request (GTR), which is a travel contract between the government and airlines, is essential because it determines conditions including fare and fees of public business trip. After that, this study proposes several ways to improve air mileage program for civil service: discounted fare of public business trip instead of air mileage, incentive to promote the usage of public air mileage, payment by partly cash and partly public air mileage to save budget, and so forth.
Logistics costs consist of transportation, storage, inventory, packaging, stevedoring (loading and unloading), and administration costs. Logistics costs are associated with GDP, oil price change, and
other economic trends at the national level. As such estimating the national logistics costs are complicated and there are considerable risks in reporting and predicting these costs. The estimation of national logistics costs is one of the major tasks that the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) has been conducting since 1995. As the country's logistics costs are often used for either beginning a construction project or establishment of policies, logistics costs should be estimated and reported to support those decisions as accurately as possible on a regular basis. However, reported logistics costs for a given year reflect costs from two years prior. The logistics costs reported in 2015, for example, is the one in 2013 due to the delay of several input data. There is also doubt in the level of accuracy of the costs. This study aims to enhance the methodology used to estimate the national logistics costs, increase the accuracy of the costs estimation, and attempt to reduce the gap between estimated year and reported year. The methodological framework is the same as previous reports published every year. The major contribution of this study is to introduce new input data, which is more accurate and timely in the analysis. National logistics costs in Korea amounted to 145.81 trillion won for the year 2013. This figure accounted for 10.20% of GDP. The value-added of national logistics activities was 78.66 trillion won and the unit-logistics costs and the unit-transportation costs were 74,031 won/ton and 587 won/ton-km, respectively. There are several issues worthy of consideration in this analysis. The growth in freight transportation costs was significantly influenced by the global increase of oil prices and the labor cost. The growth rates in the value-added national logistics activities and the national logistics costs in 2013 have grown -0.09% and 1.91% in terms of the real price since 2001, respectively. The growth rates in the unit-logistics costs and the unit-transportation costs have consistently increased 0.39% and 0.21% since 2001, respectively.