Logistics costs consist of transportation, storage, inventory, packaging, stevedoring (loading and unloading), and administration costs. Logistics costs are associated with GDP, oil price change, and other economic trends at the national level. As such estimating the national logistics costs are complicated and there are considerable risks in reporting and predicting these costs.
The estimation of national logistics costs is one of the major tasks that the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) has been conducting since 1995. As the country's logistics costs are often used for either beginning a construction project or establishment of policies, logistics costs should be estimated and reported to support those decisions as accurate as possible on a regular basis.
However, reported logistics costs for a given year reflect costs from two years prior. The logistics costs reported in 2017, for example, is the one in 2015 due to the delay of several input data. There is also doubt in the level of accuracy of the costs.
This study aims to enhance the methodology used to estimate the national logistics costs, increase the accuracy of the costs estimation, and attempt to reduce the gap between estimated year and reported year. The methodological framework is the same as previous reports published every year. The major contribution of this study is to introduce new input data, which is more accurate and timely in the analysis.
National logistics costs in Korea amounted to 168.03 trillion won for the year 2015. This figure accounted for 10.74% of GDP. The value-added of national logistics activities was 102.85 trillion won and the unit-logistics costs and the unit-transportation costs were 78,215 won/ton and 625 won/ton-km, respectively.
There are several issues worthy of consideration in this analysis. The growth in freight transportation costs was significantly influenced by the increase of global oil prices and the labor cost. The growth rates in the value-added national logistics activities and the national logistics costs in 2015 have grown 2.06% and 2.68% in terms of the real price since 2001, respectively. The growth rates in the unit-logistics costs and the unit-transportation costs have consistently increased 1.00% and 1.01% since 2001, respectively.
In this study, firstly, according to the toll road method and the private investment law, the private business, which is a nonprofit management office, set up the right to manage the toll roads to collect the toll roads and the characteristics of each concession agreement, The results of the project are as follows.
Through this, it is possible to grasp the insufficiently supervised management of the private road company, and to refer to cases of business organizations and supervisory organizations in the domestic transportation sector, legislative cases for establishing management organizations for supervision of business organizations in other fields, And presented the scenario for each type of supervisory organization. Next, after analyzing the pros and cons of each scenario and recommending the most appropriate alternative, it recommended the establishment of the supervisory body and the optimal option for the representative organization, funding for establishment and operation.
This study is based on the review of some amendments to the toll road law, which was initiated by Representative Jeon Hyun-hee of [Appendix] on August 14, 2017. However, In order to minimize the legal risk, the company appointed five lawyers as consultants for the establishment and financing of the project.
In ths study, we investigated and analyzed the curvature of long distance city bus routes operating in metropolitan areas, and examined ways to improve the curvature of the routes selected.
As a result of the research and analysis of this study, threr are a large number of long distance city bus routes width high degree of curvature of the route. In practice, however, the route of the vus lines has not been changed well because the users are reluctant to change it and complain a lot and bus company is trying to get passengers above the proper level.
However, improving the curvature of long distance city bus routes will not only enhance the convenience of users, but will also help to improve the operation efficiency of wide=area bus carriers. It is expected that the results of the research and analysis of this study can be used as a basic data for the improvement of the bend of the long distance city bus routes when the local government changes the service route by actual route.
Drones are coming into our normal life in a variety of purposes and types while it have been used for military purposes in past decades. The drones are expected to dramatically increase in the future, laws and regulations should be taken into consideration for the management of unmanned aerial vehicles (called ‘drones’). The Korea’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport has selected the drone industry as one of the seven major rising industrial areas, and has established a roadmap (‘17-’26) to support the drone industry in terms of law and regulations. Following this stream, this study aims to establish legal amendments for the management of drones, ultimately in order to effectively manage drones and support the economic growth through drones.
In principal, regulations for safety management and deregulation for fostering industries may have trade-offs. In order to minimize the trade-offs, this study provided countermeasures to enforce the registration of drones and to alleviate the authorization of drone’s navigation. In other words, this study recommended to lower the drone’s weight threshold of registration, in order to enlarge the scope of drones to be mandatorily registered. On the other hand, this study recommended a reduced procedure of navigation approval, in order to facilitate drone’s uses. With these two basic directions in mind, this study provided legal amendments by seven legal areas: 1) definition and categorization, 2) registration, 3) flight operations, 4) driver license and training, 5) liability and insurance, 6) privacy protection, and 7) enforcement and accident investigation. In addition, to facilitate the legal amendment process, this study proposed a step-by-step implementation approach enabling the current laws and regulations to be revised in the beginning and independent laws and regulations to be legislated afterward.
Estimation methodologies were developed for traffic accident costs in Korea. Road traffic accident costs were based on data from the integrated road traffic database provided by the Road Traffic Authority of Korea.
This study estimates the social costs of traffic accidents in 2015 using the gross lost output approach. This approach is considered to be the most suitable method for the economic environment of Korea. Accident costs consist of future income loss, medical costs, property damage costs, related administration costs, and PGS (pain, grief and suffering) of the victims. The Korea Transport Institute has been measuring the annual road accident costs of Korea since 1995. In 2003, it began to estimate total multimodal accident costs, including those from the rail, marine and aviation sectors.
A total of 1,144,157 accidents were reported in 2015, resulting in 4,750 deaths and 1,809,857 injuries included in all transportation modes. The resulting total accident costs totalled 49.5 trillion won, equivalent to approximately 3.17% of Korea’s 2015 GDP.
Roadway accident costs amounted to 49.2 trillion won. These costs accounted for nearly the entirety of total transportation accident costs. The accident costs of marine, rail and aviation modes were 192.7 billion won, 28.3 billion won and 42.3 billion won, respectively. Accident costs per accident showed that aviation, railway, marine and road accidents cost 3.5 billion won, 227.4 million won, 91.7 million won, and 35.7 million won respectively.
Psychological costs, which are expressed as a ratio of involvement in total compensations, were not influenced by varying judgment contexts, specifically change in perspective from victim to culprit or vice versa. However, subjective expectations of total compensations, which by the definition of willingness to pay depends on one’s perspective, were highly contingent upon the amount a victim is guaranteed against damage or loss.
The psychological unit cost per individual amounted to 286.6 million won for fatality, 75.1 million won for serious injury, and 6.3 million won for slight injury. The psychological costs of road, rail, marine and aviation modes were 23.4 trillion won, 10.3 billion won, 48.9 billion won, 0.2 billion won, respectively.
In order to achieve the TransRoad vision, which is a new road that transcends existing roads, the government's goal of using the autonomous third level in 2020 is to automate, unmannize, service and road network-based maintenance, operation and maintenance of road systems. A new integrated road traffic system is required.
However, the function and role of the future road traffic system has not been established in the road traffic system related laws (「ROAD ACT」, 「NATIONAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ACT」), and the grounds for administrative, financial and institutional support of the government are insufficient.
Therefore, this study aims to diagnose the problems and limitations of current road traffic system legislation through legislative evaluation in terms of road traffic automation, commercialization of autonomous vehicles, and future road traffic system construction. Based on this, we sought the necessity of legislation for future road traffic system and suggested legislative direction.
First of all, I examined the policies related to the future road traffic system. Policy support for infrastructure technology development and technological development of autonomous navigation system was being implemented. Road infrastructure policy has been shifting from new construction to efficient use of existing roads, and existing ITS technology has evolved into C-ITS, and digital information-based traffic operation and management technology is required. It is necessary to reorganize functions and roles of roads and transportation infrastructure in the integrated system of cars and road traffic and Smart City.
Based on this, we diagnosed the problems and limitations of 「ROAD ACT」 and 「NATIONAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ACT」, which are the current road traffic system related laws, through the legislative evaluation, which is one of the legislative evaluation. 「ROAD ACT」and 「NATIONAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ACT」have been revised in accordance with the purpose of the enactment, and although they act as independent laws, they can be used to reflect the digital infrastructure and future road traffic system Institutions are needed.
Finally, based on this, the necessity of legislation for the construction of the future road traffic system was examined and the necessity and direction of the revision were suggested. Legislation is necessary to present the direction of the new road traffic policy as the future road traffic, to establish the basis of the future road traffic policy and to secure the policy realization means.
As a result of the legislative evaluation of 「ROAD ACT」and 「NATIONAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ACT」, the legislation related to the future road traffic system, although they play a role in accordance with their respective legislative purposes, the evolution of existing road networks, It is necessary to create a legal environment that can reflect the new road traffic policy for infrastructure development.
The future direction of the legislation can be divided into partial revision of the existing law : 「ROAD ACT」and 「NATIONAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ACT」. The proposed legislative alternatives and major issues need to be utilized in the future when pursuing future road traffic system legislation.
Natual disaters such as earthquake and flooding result in massive damages to not only human fatalities but also buildings, houses, and road infrastructure. the natural disasters are still ongoing worldwide, and the damages are still severe despite the advance of disaster countermeasures. Particularly, earthquake results in massive fatalities and property damages because forecasting earthquake in advance is barely possible. in 2016, frequent earthquakes concentrated frequently occurred in the Byeongsangbuk province, and the maximum magnitude recorded 5.8-scale. Although the impact of this earthquake on fatalities and infrasturucture was not severe, the concern that wors earthquake is likely to happen exits because the frequent earthquakes in the Gyeongsangbuk province prove that the faults in tish region is still active. In response to earthquakes, many govermental organizations in charge of relief and evacuation have developed plans and manuals, but the roles of transportation and traffic management are especially important because this can contribute evacuation of people and resilience from damages. This more likely in a severe condition, in which the residents need to be evacuated.
This research proposed an evacuation traffic management strategy using public transits (i.e., buses), which could be managed by govermental bodies in an emergency situation regarding that many bus companies are being public-finsnced in part. To this end, this research established principles i) to select evacuation routes that are resistant to earthquake, ii) to appoint bases of evacuation, and iii) to utilize bus fleets in evacuation. In addition, a quantitative analysis was conducted using a case-study in a City of Gyeongju, in oder to investigate and prove the effectiveness of the proposed evacuation traffic management strategies. Therefore, the time required for evacuations using public beses and passenger vehicles, the numver of buses required for the evacuation demand, and an optimum mode share of buses and passenger vehicles were investigated. In addition, future studies and recommendations for a comprehensive evacuation traffic menagement strategy were provided after concluding statements.
This study is to mitigare the damages of natural disasters by providing the traffic management strategies, and investigated the measures to evacuate residents from the impacted areas to safe areas.
It is expected that the strategies and the quantitative analysis results provided by this research will be of helf to enhance the evacuation plan when natural disasters occur.
It is important that the private sector should expand its role to solve the parking problem in our country. This study aims to provide assessment criteria amd methods to select parking best practices as a way to promote the parking industry. Selection of parking best practices has become common in other countries such as US, Uk and Europe and other areas in Korea such as architecture, housing and employment
Sharing best practices with the parking industry is expected to make parking facilities more advanced and therefore, promote parking industry which is significantly important to solve parking problems in Korea.
In this study, domestic and international cases concerning selection of best practices related to parking facilities and operations of such facilities are reviewed. The review results are used to build a draft of assessment criteria to select parking best practice considering parking facilities only. The primary assessment criteria were selected according to the Korean situation and acceptability in parking industry.
The major assessment criteria include fundamental conditions, safety, convenience and functionality. The assessment items are following; The criteria for the fundamental conditions include well-designed entrance and parking lots, which effect drivers’ convenience. The assessment items for safety are security and monitoring system, solutions of blind areas and brightness, while the criteria for convenience contain parking information system, payments and pedestrian path design within parking facilities. Functionality is evaluated by how well parking is design in terms of drivers’ recognition and collaboration with environment and which innovative technologies are applied for effective operations. Other assessment items which are not mentioned above are presented in Table 4.2.
Assessment criteria are quantified by scores for evaluation. In addition, an evaluation method for selecting the candidate groups to select the best parking lots is specified to suggest a method that can be applied in practice.
The assessment criteria and methods for parking best practice presented in this study is expected to serve as the basis for guidance on major assessment items and methods for the future good park selection projects.
The elderly population rate in Korean society has been reached to 13.1% in 2015 and we expect the rate would grow continuously. Between 2001 and 2015, elder driver’s license hold rate soared from 10.1% to 34.6%, and car accident cases caused by elders has increased accordingly. In 2001, there were 3,759 cases which has grown to 23,079 (6.1 times) in 2015. Given that the car accident cases in Korea have been gradually decreasing in recent years, such growth of car accidents caused by elders is a notable phenomenon.
Such increase of the car accident caused by elderly population is closely related to the increase of elders’ employment in passenger transportation business. For elders, bars for getting a taxi driver license is not significantly high in Korea, and more low-income elders tend to get a job in passenger transportation business as a taxi driver. Taxi drivers’ aging phenomenon in Korea has been raised as an issue. However, there has been relatively lack of research conducted for understanding the relationships between the aging taxi drivers and the increasing accidents in Korea. At this point, we posit that it is imperative to have a deeper understanding of how the aging taxi drivers in Korea causes socio economic effect in transportation. For example, we need to investigate the trends of aging taxi drivers, comparative analysis regarding drive safety awareness between elderly and non-elderly population, and deeper analysis for car accident cases caused by elderly drivers.
In this research, we seek to inform useful insights and policy directions for establishing safer future transportation. To understand how to make safer driving environment, we conducted in-depth analyses of the current situation of taxi transportation industry in Korea, and examine a series of legal regulations effective in abroad. Our findings are as follows:
First, we propose ways to improve taxi driver management system. Specifically, the new management system suggests rigorous execution of driver’s advanced education with driving simulation systems and regular advanced aptitude tests. Second, we encourage the Korean policies more strictly enforce taxi transportation industry to comply with rigorous safety management regulation. Presenting incentives such as certificate of excellence in safety or penalties such as imposing tax can be considered. Third, improving working condition of elderly taxi drivers is indispensable for reducing the accident. We propose ways of improving effectiveness of managing transportation income or welfare fund of Korean government in order to provide more support to elderly taxi drivers.
We believe our findings in this research contribute to presenting insights to policy makers that can lead to yielding better policy directions which can establish safer transportation environment. We wish this research can motivate meaningful changes in passenger transportation businesses.
Urban transportation in modern cities is car-oriented. This auto-oriented system is convenient but makes environment more problematic, so that paradigm shift to green transport system is needed. However, motorized transport system is inevitable. Electric vehicles are the result. Electric vehicles have disadvantages such as large parking space compared with that of bicycles. Therefore, personal mobilities (PM) have appeared to solve space problem of cars as well as inconvenience of human power transport.
This kind of personal mobilities are getting more popular in not only domestic but also global market. However, lack of legislation makes PM inconvenient. Road Transport Act forces people to use driveway than sidewalk or bikeway, but PMs are slow and dangerous on driveways. License and helmet are necessary, but users ride without license and helmet.
Survey results show that PM has high potential for transport purpose. This research suggests several legislative improvements for safer and more convenient transport use. Especially, this research focuses on the conditions for PMs to use bikeway since Korean government considers bikeway as a candidate. First, PMs must be similar with bicycles in size, weight, and speed. Second, PMs must be safer than bicycles. Third, consensus between bikeway users is essential.
The result is not a final one but beginning and foundation stone for more use of PMs.