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Improvement of Driving and Rest Hours for Commercial
||Nakmoon SUNG․ Jae-kyung LIM․ Han-byul JANG․ Taeyoon PARK
November 30, 2017
||The Korea Transport Institute
There have been deadly bus traffic accidents that have tremendous impacts on our society in recent years. This research aims to develop regulations to tackle bus traffic accidents being caused from drowsiness and fatigue driving. Bus traffic accidents have recently gained greater attention as the horrifying scene of the accident are rapidly and widely distributed through mass media like broadcasting and Social Network Services, even though accident fatalities have decreased 14.1% for the last 10 years(2006~2015).
Drowsiness and fatigue related traffic crashes can be considered to be associated with rest area. This research shows that the more traffic crashes have occurred on 5 km sections before rest area, rather than on 5km sections after rest area in freeways. It seems that fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers are very related in consecutive driving hours. Analysis with Kaplan-Meier Model shows that hazardous driving behaviors(the number of abrupt decelerations) increase with consecutive driving hours.
Fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers are affected by types of employment. Approximately 50% of bus drivers serve under the exploitative labor contracts Bok-gyeok-il-je and Bok․Bok-gyeok-il-je (Bok-gyeok-il-je: One day work-One day off, Bok․Bok-gyeok-il-je : Two days work-One day off) which may cause drowsiness and fatigue related traffic crashes. Long bus routes also seem to be big problems in preventing fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers. Analysis of operation hour and distance on bus routes shows that a number of drivers should be behind the wheel more than 5 hours without a break because of long bus routes.
Driving hours are very related to the Labor Standards Act. It is clearly stipulated on Section 50 of the Labor Standards Act that working hours should not exceed 8 hours except rest time. Transport industries, however, are an exception to the standards on section 59 of the same Act. The exception makes it possible to allow exploitative labor contracts(One day work-One day off or Two days work-One day off). On the other hand, a number of advanced countries such as EU, US, Japan, Australia, United Kingdom have a strict regulation for driving hours in order to prevent fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers. For example, maximum driving time of these countries is 9~12 hours a day and 40~72 hour a week respectively.
Followings are policies being proposed by this research;
First, Maximum driving hours should be regulated on a daily, a weekly and a monthly bases. Drowsiness and fatigue related traffic crashes will not be disappeared without improving exploitative employment types such as Bok-gyeok-il-je and Bok․Bok-gyeok-il-je.
Second, Compliance with driving hours regulation should be strictly monitored. DTG(Digital Tachograph) may not be good approach to enforce violators because of various limitations of DTG. Control by the police on the field may be the best way to step up monitoring of driving hours regulation.
Third, Long bus routes need to be adjusted so that consecutive driving hours are not exceeded 2 hours. In case long bus routes are inevitable, rest areas should be installed on some spots along bus routes. Driver shifts at the bus station may deserve much consideration.