Public-private partnerships (PPP) allow the private sector to construct and operate infrastructure utilizing its capital which has traditionally been carried out with public finance. The system has been implemented with the purpose of enhancing the quality of people’s lives by providing public services at the right time through creativity and efficiency of the private sector while covering budget shortfalls. Since the introduction of a new PPP scheme introduced in April 2015, railway PPP projects based on the principle of risk sharing between the public and private sectors have been pushed forward in earnest. However, specific guidelines for performance assessment on the project operator have not been in place although the evaluation is mandatory under the new scheme as it involves financial support of the government.
Thus, this research aims to set the goal and direction of such performance appraisal reflecting future prospects and trends on PPP railway projects and subsequently develop a performance assessment system which encompasses evaluation indices and methods. The main goal is to build a system that enables a comprehensive appraisal on the required performance level of railway facilities built through PPP projects as well as public services by considering user convenience with a particular focus. Based on this system, more objective and reasonable criteria to determine the amount of government support could be developed since the government is able to increase or decrease its financial support for private project operators according to the results of performance measurement on PPP railway projects. In addition, it is expected to be helpful in improving user convenience by driving better performance of private project implementers and conducive to addressing negative public opinion on PPP projects caused by minimum revenue guarantee and higher fees.
With the intention of raising the level of contribution to policy-making, this research drew a conclusion based on cooperation with a railway PPP project management organization and consultation with a third-party professional. I would like to express my gratitude to Korea Railway Network Authority and Professor Dong-kyu Park of Hangyang University for sharing an abundant data for the establishment of the performance assessment system and simulation. I would also like to express my appreciation to advisers in and out of the Institute who provided valuable suggestions at expert workshops and research review meetings. I hope that findings of this research will be useful in carrying out railway PPP projects.
Transport big data platform is the physical and virtual environment in which one user could share transport and transport-related big data with other users. In the platform, big data from one source are collected, processed, analyzed and integrated with big data from another source. Given that transport big data platform facilitates the utilization of public and private data and improve the efficiency of data analysis, it could be the powerful platform for data ecosystem.
To begin with, transport big data platform has an advantage over existing data platforms in that it could induce the integration of public data in transport and transport-related sectors. In Korea, it is true to say that there are many data platforms which are separately operated and not connected with other ones. If those platforms are connected and integrated into one system in which big data could be collected, processed, analyzed and utilized, it is expected that data sharing will be easier and quicker. And this would make data fusion and convergence more effective.
In addition, transport big data platform is needed to make sure of data in private sectors. The data of navigation, smart phones, and transit cards are the most frequently mentioned and utilized ones which are largely produced and collected in private sectors. As there is a cognizance that those data are looked upon as the property or asset of a private company, it is not easy to persuade private companies to share data managed by them. Furthermore, because some data are traded expensively, general public who have low purchasing power are usually restricted to access private data. To handle this obstacle, public sectors including government agencies in an agreement with private companies could purchase private data and share them within the transport big data platform.
Last but not least, the true and valuable insights from big data are as a result of data convergence, and data standardization is a prerequisite for this convergence. Data which are produced by different agencies inevitably have a variety of features in terms of type and content. The inconsistency from those varieties could lead to increasing the time and cost of data processing. If data standardization would be considered and executed in the stage of data collection and storing, the time and cost of data processing might be rapidly decreased that results in improve the efficiency of data utilization. It is expected that data standardization is naturally achieved within transport big data platform in which data are treated jointly.
The national highway budget of 2018 spoken by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport is about 14,700 billion won and it is reduced by 23 percent over the past year. However, the budget for highway maintenance, climate change response, and road safety improvement rise up to 3,790 billion won(2.4% increase). These changing of SOC investment shows that SOC investment will be reduced continuously and the more highway facilities are getting old, the more investments are needed to maintain them. But the national highway official plans don’t focus on maintenance of highway facilities but construction of new highway.
The suitable highway maintenance plan can reduce facility management cost and make effective usage of the existing highway facilities. In this light, the aim of this research is to make improvements of the national highway official plans to contain highway maintenance plan following the new paradigm of SOC investment. Especially, response plan for highway deterioration is suggested, too.
First, the research suggest a new planning methodology that is separated by top-down process and bottom-up process according to the characteristics of planning items. Because the national comprehensive items like new national highway construction is more effective when it is planned by top-down process while the local individual items like the construction of underground road in specific area is better to be planned by bottom-up process.
Second, making a control tower named ‘The national highway planning group’ is suggested. There are 3 kinds of official plans that concerned with national highway and each plans has its own goals and strategy. So, the control tower to bind these plans is needed for making unified national highway plan in long-term point of view.
Last, the departmentalization of highway facilities maintenance plan into ordinary management / fault management / special management is suggested. For the special management to response for highway deterioration, the research suggest to make a guide-line that contains management method of each highway facilities to response their deterioration. Development of the life-cycle management system for highway facilities are also suggested in the research.
Urban transport has been invested centered on efficiency and operated for development and support of economic activity. Efficiency-driven management has limitations in promoting transport services for public welfare and social integration. This study typified economic and social vulnerable of transportation sector by income, health and residential area(transport service blind area) and analyzed whether the previous public transport policies had unequal elements in classes.
First, the analysis of low-income groups and public transport accessibility distribution in Seoul and metropolitan new towns showed that the low-income vulnerable lived in the outskirts of the city and have low accessibility to public transportation compared to those living in the central areas. This is probably due to the fact that public transport infrastructure investments and routes have been concentrated in the central area of the city, rather than the urban suburbs, due to efficiency-oriented provision and operation of public transportation infrastructure. Also, there is a variation in the level of public transportation services according to the residential location in the same city. and the service gap between the center and suburb areas may become large, so that requires consideration in terms of public transportation planning and operation policies. In this study, we propose the establishment of investment finance and business system to ensure the equality of public transportation service and the monitoring and evaluation system for the variation of public transportation service level by residential area. and we suggest that the deliberate process in reduction or abolition of services be needed
Second, the free-ride system of metro for the elderly is has issues about sustainability due to the increase in the number of beneficiaries due to the aging of the elderly. In this study, the analysis of the mode share of the elderly and free-ride record of the metro is conducted based on the household survey data and public transport data in Daejeon metropolitan city. The analysis shows that the elderly whom lives in the area where metro does not passes are difficult to use benefit of free-ride system. Therefore, if the accessibility of metro is not secured throughout the city, certain regions may result in non-institutional benefits. In order to compensate for the inequalities caused by the limitation of the transport system, it is necessary to consider expanding the free-ride system to other modes such as buses.
Third, the Moon Jae-in government considers expanding Taxi DRT(Demand responsive transport) services which is called '100-won-Taxi' to improve comforts and welfare of rural residents. In rural areas, the size of households and road conditions are different in each village, so that a wide range of interests with existing passenger car operators. and it is necessary to investigate if villages with small size and difficulty in introduction of DRT services. In this study, the field survey was conducted four Counties in Jeollabuk-do(Provincial area) to figure out DRT introduction and operation status of transport-vulnerable areas. According to the results of survey, rural areas have different distribution of households and demands. Therefore, when expanding the DRT services to the nationwide, it is necessary to consider various conditions of villages for satisfaction of the residents. finally, the establishment of a flexible framework of institution, post-evaluation system, and the application of private technology to enhance operational efficiency and service improvement.
In modern society, the provision of mobility services is one of the important roles of the public, because the movement is regarded as the basic human right that is considered as important to food and shelter. Also, in overcrowded metropolises such as the Seoul metropolitan area, we are aggressively promoting the use of public transportation to minimize socioeconomic costs caused by traffic congestion and air pollution.
The integrated transportation service is a service to supplement the shortage of the existing public transportation system. It is basically a service for guaranteeing the right of movement of the user and improving the convenience of mobility. It is the most important purpose of reducing the socioeconomic costs. It is also necessary to secure the publicity of transportation services, improve operational efficiency, and ensure the substantiality of the transportation industry.
We hope that this study will be the basis for the introduction of integrated transportation services.
Recently, the trend of the world economy is gradually spreading from free trade movements to protectionism. These changes seem to be influencing the US Trump government, the US-centered protectionism and the expansion of anti-immigration, and the European division due to Brexit and refugee problems. In addition, with the fourth industrial revolution, the trend of reshoring in the manufacturing sector has spread in developed countries and the movement of trade volume mainly in the US and Europe is slowing down. Also, as the center of the world economy moves to the Eurasian region, there is a growing interest in arranging measures for smooth trade activities among the Eurasian regions.
In terms of geographical characteristics, Korea is required to promote the TKR connection and the connection with the Northeast Asia International Land Transport Route and the improvement of the border crossing system with the relevant countries for the project to construct the Eurasian International Transport Corridor. However, relations between Northeast Asian countries surrounding the present Korean Peninsula are at a stage of crushing more than ever due to political reasons such as North Korea's nuclear test and the problem of THAAD placement. Nevertheless, the need for connection with Eurasia continent is continuously increasing through long-term TKR, TCR, and TSR connections for the common prosperity of Northeast Asia and Korea's economic growth.
In this study, we surveyed the domestic logistics companies for various obstacles in the international logistics process of Eurasia, which was presented in the first year study, to identify more specific obstacles and to implement strategies
First of all, the necessity of construction of international transportation by Eurasia and the current status and the prospect of utilization of Eurasia international land transportation in Korea were reviewed and analyzed. Then, domestic logistics companies have identified the severity of major obstacles faced in the use of Eurasia as an international transportation and solved the urgent priority among each of the detailed obstacle factors. Based on this, we propose 15 strategies for effective utilization of Eurasia international transportation and investigated and analyzed the priorities of response strategies that the Korean government would like to implement promptly in terms of domestic logistics companies.
Finally, we proposed three types of support projects that can be implemented shortly at the present time among the government's response direction and support strategies that are sought to be pursued in accordance with the results of the surveys conducted in Korea.
Road speed limits are to set the maximum speed of vehicles on roadways. Because the speed limit is closely related to driver’s driving behaviors, this has been a dispute within drivers for decades. For example, people might say that the speed limit is too low even though the width of road is enough to drive fast, or people rather say that the speed limit is too high while the road is narrow. This is drivers’ desires in a subjective point of view, but it implies that speed limits need to be decided by taking the road features such as road width, number of lanes, traffic volume, the proportion of heavy vehicles, and land-uses into consideration. In other words, there is a demand for reasonable speed limits.
Speed limits in the Republic of Korea (hereafter ‘Korea’) are regulated by the Korea’s ROAD TRAFFIC ACT, and the speed limits have been usually set to 60 km/h in most urban roads and the speed limit equal or higher than 80 km/h has been allowed for the two-lane roads. However, this speed limit regulation is limited to comprehensively consider the surroundings of roads such as land-uses, population, and the proportion of heaby vehicles, which define the functionality of roads. Ultimately, this limitation in law hinders to decide reasonable speed limits. In addition, the national police agency in Korea recently announced that the speed limits in urban roads will be lowered to 50 km/h or 30 km/h (called ‘speed limit changes 5030’), based on the claim that the speed limits in urban roads in Korea are higher than the many cases in Europe and north America.
With these backgrounds in mind, This study investigated the effectiveness of the speed limit changes in urban roads in terms of safety (i.e., accidents) and mobility (i.e., travel speed and time). The study results indicated that lowering speed limits decrease accidents and mitigate the severity of accidents. Although lowering speed limits slightly increased travel time, it was not a significant impact in urban road because the travel times in urban roads are significantly affected by traffic signals. With this in mind, lowering speed limits will carry a positive impact in urban road, based on that the accident reduction impact (benefit) was greater than the travel time increases impact. This finding justifies the speed limit changes policy in Korea. In addition, this study suggested the road characteristic indexes to be considered when setting speed limits in urban roads, and also proposed a reasonable procedure for determining speed limits. These study results will help to set reasonable speed limits, and we hope that this study enhances traffic safety in urban roads.
Airport is arguably one of the most complex system in existing transportation facilities that is operated by diverse group and stakeholder and is much influenced by external factors. For example, in the event of a plane, facilities and other airport accidents, responsible stakeholder involved in the accidents are greater than any other transportation areas. Despite the importance of robust maintenance of the facility, in recent years, we are observing signs of increase in possibility of airport operation failure due to rapid increase in aviation demand, growing expectations of aviation services, and increase in automation and connection systems with the introduction of advanced systems.
Republic of Korea is not the only country that is experiencing these issues. United States of America (USA) and United Kingdom (UK) has also experienced these issues in the past. In order to resolve the problem, they have shifted away from responding to the emergency situation and they have introduced airport irregular operations when responding to disrupted normal flight schedules. Such efforts are also being made in Korea to improve efficiency of airport operations and implementation of management systems to prevent and respond to serious accidents. However, there are no specific definition and methodology to determine airport irregular operations and ripple effects for predictive and preemptive response since detailed studies has not been conducted. In order to solve these problems, following study took incremental approach to newly define the airport irregular operations by distinguishing terms between emergency situation and normal situation. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodology for identifying the concept of the matrix based on severity and duration rather than cause. The index of the airport operating system was set up as the increase of the delay time and a tool was developed to simulate the delay situation based on the actual operation data of the individual airport. We conducted simulation for airports located in Jeju, Gimpo, and Gimhae Airport where air traffic congestion is greater than other airports in Korea to establish classification of airport irregular operation based on unsupervised learning of the results.
A scenario analysis was carried out to verify the constructed methodology assuming that the airport irregular operations occur. In addition, we have verified characteristics of constructed model through ensemble learning, which is a type of supervised learning method, and confirmed its applicability. It was difficult to apply constructed classification model directly due to the data limitation but the study suggested potential applicability in the future once we accumulate more data and refine methodology.
For the policy utilization, we examined current airport irregular operation response system in Korea and conducted a survey for passengers related to flight delays and cancellations. The result has suggested that policy consideration is needed to improve the response system rather than focusing on improvement of facilities. It is also imperative to gain more information to satisfy customers and passengers in the airport. The developed methodology in this study can be utilized as a tool to meet these policy needs.
The study suggests alternatives to emergency response system with manual and the necessity of maximizing the effectiveness of the response system through the introduction of the BCP concept and a specific plan for the group decision making process. Moreover, the study briefly reviewed the quantitative expectation effect through preemptive response to the airport irregular operations and analyzed the social benefits.
Finally, the study comprehensively covers development of basic analytical methodology based on the policy needs of stakeholder in airport operation, and its application to policies such as system and manual improvement. The approach suggested in this study is different to the existing approach, so it is necessary to enhance publicity and a bond of sympathy, implement the learning method and develop the manual for the airport irregular operations through the actual verification and data accumulation. We expect airport operations seamless through preemptive and predictive response with described above.
There have been deadly bus traffic accidents that have tremendous impacts on our society in recent years. This research aims to develop regulations to tackle bus traffic accidents being caused from drowsiness and fatigue driving. Bus traffic accidents have recently gained greater attention as the horrifying scene of the accident are rapidly and widely distributed through mass media like broadcasting and Social Network Services, even though accident fatalities have decreased 14.1% for the last 10 years(2006~2015).
Drowsiness and fatigue related traffic crashes can be considered to be associated with rest area. This research shows that the more traffic crashes have occurred on 5 km sections before rest area, rather than on 5km sections after rest area in freeways. It seems that fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers are very related in consecutive driving hours. Analysis with Kaplan-Meier Model shows that hazardous driving behaviors(the number of abrupt decelerations) increase with consecutive driving hours.
Fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers are affected by types of employment. Approximately 50% of bus drivers serve under the exploitative labor contracts Bok-gyeok-il-je and Bok․Bok-gyeok-il-je (Bok-gyeok-il-je: One day work-One day off, Bok․Bok-gyeok-il-je : Two days work-One day off) which may cause drowsiness and fatigue related traffic crashes. Long bus routes also seem to be big problems in preventing fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers. Analysis of operation hour and distance on bus routes shows that a number of drivers should be behind the wheel more than 5 hours without a break because of long bus routes.
Driving hours are very related to the Labor Standards Act. It is clearly stipulated on Section 50 of the Labor Standards Act that working hours should not exceed 8 hours except rest time. Transport industries, however, are an exception to the standards on section 59 of the same Act. The exception makes it possible to allow exploitative labor contracts(One day work-One day off or Two days work-One day off). On the other hand, a number of advanced countries such as EU, US, Japan, Australia, United Kingdom have a strict regulation for driving hours in order to prevent fatigue and drowsiness of bus drivers. For example, maximum driving time of these countries is 9~12 hours a day and 40~72 hour a week respectively.
Followings are policies being proposed by this research;
First, Maximum driving hours should be regulated on a daily, a weekly and a monthly bases. Drowsiness and fatigue related traffic crashes will not be disappeared without improving exploitative employment types such as Bok-gyeok-il-je and Bok․Bok-gyeok-il-je.
Second, Compliance with driving hours regulation should be strictly monitored. DTG(Digital Tachograph) may not be good approach to enforce violators because of various limitations of DTG. Control by the police on the field may be the best way to step up monitoring of driving hours regulation.
Third, Long bus routes need to be adjusted so that consecutive driving hours are not exceeded 2 hours. In case long bus routes are inevitable, rest areas should be installed on some spots along bus routes. Driver shifts at the bus station may deserve much consideration.
The earthquake-measuring magnitude 5.4 on the moment magnitude scale-struck Pohang, North Gyeongsang Province, Korea on November 15 2017. It is tied with the 2016 Gyeongju earthquake on September 12 2016 as the country's strongest earthquake since the 1978 earthquake observation in Korea. Pohang earthquake was smaller than Gyeongju earthquake, but the depth was shallow to 9㎞ and the vibrations experienced by the citizens were similar to those during the Gyeongju earthquake.
According to an initial assessment by the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, the earthquake damaged 2,165 private properties, including 1,988 private houses. Of those, 52 homes suffered severe damage and 157 suffered serious damage.
At least 82 people were injured in the earthquake, including 15 people who were hospitalized. About 1,124 people stayed in temporary shelters after they had to leave their home.
In this way, the largest earthquake of the past and the second largest scale in Korean history of earthquake observation that began in 1978 occur continuously for a period of about one year, so that experts warn that a major earthquake of about 7.0 is likely to occur on the Korean Peninsula.
In 2015, the Prime Minister's Office and 17 ministries and agencies, including the National Security Agency, set up a 'Safety Innovation Master Plan', which is a mid- to long-term comprehensive plan for disaster management at the national level.
In addition, the Korean government has set up a dedicated organization in the municipality and announced that it will invest 30 trillion won in resources over the next five years to strengthen its capabilities in disaster response.
However, there are still many indications that the Master Plan for Safety Innovation lacks expertise in evacuation measures and relief logistics to protect people and property.
5,532 earthquake outdoors shelters nationwide to be used as a temporary shelter for residents at the beginning of the earthquake and 1,536 earthquake-resistant indoor shelters nationwide were announced by the National Security Department in December 2016. However, it is pointed out that there were insufficient considerations in the transport section such as facility standards and functions, location and operation technology in the selection process.
It is also unclear whether the evacuation area has been set considering the evacuation distance and evacuation transport means and whether the evacuation site and the supply have been selected considering evacuation accessibility according to evacuation means and road network hierarchy.
In the disaster recovery phase after the evacuation, there are many problems in the relief logistics system that delivers the relief materials including the donations to the victims.
Looking back at the process of delivering the donations that has been sent to the families of the accidents that occurred in Jindo Gymnasium at the time of the Sewol-ho ferry sinking accident in 2014, it is possible to know how sluggish the logistics system of Korea is still.
President Moon Jae-in emphasizes the government's willingness as a disaster management general organization to secure national security, with two tasks (No. 55-Establishment of national responsibility system for safety accident prevention and disaster safety management, No.56 – Establishment of integrated disaster management system and strengthen capacity for immediate response) related to national security management and strengthening of disaster management system among the top 100 national government tasks.
The purpose of this study is to review the improvement of the national disaster response system, which is directly related to national security, from the viewpoint of evacuation transport and relief logistics and to analyze the disaster response policy to minimize the loss of life in case of a major disaster including earthquake.
In this study, the evacuation behavior is analyzed from the transport side, the evacuation distance is compared with the evacuation characteristics, and the evacuation area is set.
We will analyze the access strategy of evacuation routes according to evacuation and road network hierarchy, and verify the response strategy to the actual application sites (Sejong-si).
In order to support the establishment of a comprehensive and systematic relief logistics strategy at the national level, we identify the location of domestic relief logistics hubs, the management of relief goods, and the status of relief goods management.
From this point of view, we analyze issues related to relief logistics resources, relief logistics systems, related laws and systems related to domestic relief logistics in terms of logistics.
In addition, prioritization of improvement efforts will be identified through the causal map analysis between issues, and suggestions for improvement of problems will be presented.