The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport announced a plan to introduce a full-scale Smart Tolling System by 2020 when the first National Road Network Plan was established in August, 2016. If a Smart Tolling System is introduced in earnest in Korea, about 300 toll offices managed by the Korea Expressway Corporation will be unmanned, and toll gate facilities owned by each toll office will become unused.
Errors in traffic demand forecast occur in three stages. First, errors occur in the KTDB establishment stage, the basic data, second, errors occur in the implementation stage the driver behaviors of the traffic demand model and third, errors are caused by environmental changes, such as design changes or changes in the development plan, in the project promotion stage following a preliminary feasibility study. It is realistically impossible to accurately identify the cause of errors between the traffic demand forecasted through a preliminary feasibility study and the traffic volume investigated after project implementation in terms of the three factors above. To improve the reliability of traffic demand forecast this study focused on improving the reliability of KTDB by preventing the cause of errors occurring in the first stage rather than those occurring in the second and third stages, which are difficult to resolve in a short period of time or requires systematic improvement.
Amid the environmental changes in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the ripple effects of the big data market are evaluated to further amplify around the world in line with the rapid development of the digital-based convergence industry. As a result, the big data industry is forecast to develop into a base industry as the technology will also be widely utilized across the logistics industry. In particular, as the trend of convergence between industries accelerates together with the development of e-Commerce, the amount of big data generation increases sporadically and the demand to utilize the data is also increasing. In addition, the advent of logistics startups using real-time information led to the demand for the government’s open data reliability verification and sharing of a greater amount of information. The changes in industry trends and technological advancement as illustrated by the introduction of last mile delivery service using drones and self-driving trucks have resulted in the necessity to build new big data, such as a super-precision digital freight map, as well as to establish demand response policies and sharing systems.
In the logistics market, there are a large number of small-scale businesses operating under inferior management conditions. As a result, the competitive power of the logistics industry as a whole is lowered or remains stationary. With the complexity of transactions and the resultant unfairness fundamentally embedded, this structure impedes the small-scale logistics business operators, which are subcontractors, from securing the ability to grow on their own.
Various urban issues, such as a shortage of resources and infrastructure, increased traffic congestion and energy scarcity, are forecast to gradually worsen in line with the trend of urbanization around the world (Urbanization Rates (2015, U.N.): 82.5% in Korea, 93.5% in Japan, 81.6% in the U.S. and 82.6% in the U.K).1 Every country is taking a variety of steps at resolving the issues that are associated with urbanization. Korea has also been making efforts to resolve urban transportation issues, which include the introduction of the ITS, transportation demand control, distribution of ecofriendly vehicles and establishment of sustainable transportation policies. Recently, the concept of smart city has spread rapidly throughout the world. Accordingly, the importance of smart traffic and smart mobility, key elements of a smart city, have been magnified. The central government, including the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport the Ministry of Science and ICT and the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, is promoting and planning to establish smart city-related policies and to implement a variety of smart city development and pilot operation projects. However, the detailed and systematic implementation strategies and execution plans for the transportation sector are not yet available.
New transportation services based on the sharing economy are at odds with the existing transportation industry. Uber Pool, a world-famous and representative ridesharing service, was not introduced in Korea due to the opposition of the taxi industry and lack of legal basis. However, some argue that shared transport services, which were newly introduced in line with technological advancements, is necessary from the aspect of strengthening urban competitiveness. According to Deloitte (2016)1, the Uber X rate in Australia is 20% lower (about US$ 6) than taxis, and the waiting time is 4.5 minutes shorter than taxis (8 minutes). Brookings Institute (2017)2 forecasted that shared transport platform businesses like Uber will bring about positive changes in terms of economic efficiency and social equity.
The government is implementing the policy of increasing high-speed train operations for numerous territorial axes as a part of the construction of the high-speed transportation network system, but it is restricted by the lack of feasibility in the phase of the preliminary feasibility study. Certain projects should play an important role in the high-speed railway network system. If those projects are delayed or become difficult to implement, it is likely to negatively affect the overall high-speed railway transportation significantly. Discussions are underway on the restructuring of the transportation SOC investment evaluation system or the exemption of the preliminary feasibility study so that these types of projects can be implemented. The U.K., France, and other countries recommend to add economic effects in a broad sense that consider industrial aspects such as the ripple effect on regional economies, in addition to the existing social cost reduction benefits regarding the effect of operating transportation facilities.
The PSO (public service obligation) compensation policy for remote areas is in operation to compensate for the management loss of railway service providers occurring while providing basic railway services for the purpose of public interest in accordance with the “Framework Act on the Development of the Railroad Industry.” Twelve lines were designated as PSO railway lines in remote rural areas (PSO railway lines hereafter) in 2005 when lines were designated for the first time. However, since then, seven lines have been designated as PSO railway lines after many changes and business losses have been compensated. However, the compensation system for PSO railway lines is implemented for all routes, which exposes the following limits.
The 4th industrial revolution brings about innovative changes in society and to the economy, and the mobility field is not an exception to these changes. The emergence of autonomous driving technology can increase the convenience of personal passenger car use and bring about many positive effects such as efficient traffic operations and road capacity expansion. The autonomous driving-based shared transport system will reduce demand for private transportation.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs hereafter) are expected to increase convenience of mobility for users while reducing traffic accidents. However, despite the benefits for the society and people, there are also some negative aspects of AVs. The impact on AVs to society depends on how people use the new technology. The public sector’s support is required to lead the way in a positive direction. Support should include a proactive study of socioeconomic and environmental influence of AVs that are expected to rise with the development of AVs commercially because the influence will affect not only users’ convenience but also the society at large. Countries such as the United States, European countries and Japan have already started studies to analyze the impact of AV adoption (Innamaa et al., 2017; Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, 2017).